ES101 Final Exam Notes
Ch. 7-10, 26-28
Chapter 7 – Aquatic Biodiversity
Phytoplankton (Plant Plankton) – Weakly swimming, free-floating types of algae that are
the producers that support most aquatic food chains and food webs.
Zooplankton – Consist of primary consumers (herbivores) that feed on phytoplankton
and secondary consumers that feed on other zooplankton.
Ultraplankton – photosynthetic bacteria no more than 2 micrometers wide.
Nekton – Strongly swimming consumers such as fish, turtles, and wales.
Benthos – Consumers that dwell on the bottom of the ocean.
Decomposers – Mostly bacteria that break down the organic compounds in the dead
bodies and wastes of aquatic organisms into simple nutrient compounds for use by
Euphotic Zone - Upper layer of the water in which sunlight can penetrate.
Coastal Zone – Warm, nutrient-rich, shallow water that extends from the high-tide mark
on land to the gently sloping, shallow edge of the continental shelf.
Estuary – Partially enclosed area of coastal water where seawater mixes with freshwater
and nutrients from rivers, streams and runoff from land.
Coastal Wetlands – River mouths, inlets, bays, sounds and salt marshes.
Intertidal Zone – The area of the shoreline between low and high tides.
Open Sea – The vast volume of the Ocean
Freshwater Life Zones – Occur where water with a dissolved salt concentration of less
than 1% by volume accumulates on or flows through the surfaces of terrestrial biomes.
Lakes – Large natural bodies of standing fresh water formed when precipitation, runoff,
or groundwater seepage fill depressions in the Earth’s surface.
Epilimnion – Water near the surface, which is heated by the sun and mixed by the action
of wind and waves, becomes a distinct layer of warm well-oxygenated water.
Spring Turnover – In spring as ice melts and the surface water warms, it actually
becomes denser; it sinks and sets up a convection mixing nutrients from the bottom and
oxygen from the surface.
Oligotrophic Lake – Small supply of plant nutrients Eutrophic Lake – Large supply of plant nutrients
Mesotrophic Lake – Lakes that fall between these two extremes
Surface Water – Precipitation that doesn’t sink into the ground
Runoff – Precipitation that flows into streams
Watershed/Drainage Basin – Land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved
substances to a stream.
Inland Wetlands – Lands covered with fresh water al of part of the time and located
away from coastal areas.
Chapter 8 – Community Ecology
Species Equilibrium Model/Theory of Island Biogeography – Widely accepted model
where a balance between two factors determines the number of different species found
on an island: the rate at which new species immigrate to the island and the rate at which
existing species become extinct on the island.
Indicator Species – Species that are so strongly associated with an environment that
they are excellent indicators of key environmental conditions.
Interspecific Competition – Competition between species for shared or scarce resources
such as space and food.
Resource Partitioning – When species competing for similar scarce resources evolve
more specialized traits that allow them to use shared resources at different times, in
different ways, or in different places.
Predation – Members of one species feed directly on all or part of a living organism of
Parasitism – Occurs when one species feeds on part of another organism, usually by
living on or in the host.
Endoparasites – Tapeworms, disease-causing microorganisms, and other organisms
that live inside their hosts.
Ectoparasites – Organisms that attach themselves to the outside of their hosts.
Mutualism – Two species interact in a way that benefits both.
Commensalism – Species interaction that benefits one species but has little, if any,
effect on the other species.
Ecological Succession – Gradual change in species composition of a given area. Primary Succession – Involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities on
nearly lifeless ground.
Secondary Succession – Biotic communities are established in an area where some
type of biotic community is already present.
Pioneer Species – Species that attach themselves to inhospitable patches of bare rock.
Early Successional Plant Species – Grow close to the ground, can establish large
populations quickly under harsh conditions, and have short lives.
Mid-Successional Plant Species - Herbs, grasses, and low shrubs.
Late Successional Plant Species – Plants that can tolerate shade.
Disturbance – A change in environmental conditions that disrupts a community or
Inertia/Persistence – The ability of a living system to resist being disturbed or altered.
Constancy: The ability of a living system such as a population to keep its numbers within
the limits imposed by available resources.
Resilience – The amount of disturbance that a living system can successfully absorb
without being fundamentally changed.
Complexity – The number of species in a community at each trophic level and the
number of trophic levels in a community.
Precautionary Principle – When there is evidence that a human activity can harm our
health or bring about changes in environmental conditions that can affect our economies
or quality of life, we should take measures to prevent harm