ES101 Final Exam Notes.docx

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Environmental Studies
James Hamilton

ES101 Final Exam Notes Ch. 7-10, 26-28 Chapter 7 – Aquatic Biodiversity Phytoplankton (Plant Plankton) – Weakly swimming, free-floating types of algae that are the producers that support most aquatic food chains and food webs. Zooplankton – Consist of primary consumers (herbivores) that feed on phytoplankton and secondary consumers that feed on other zooplankton. Ultraplankton – photosynthetic bacteria no more than 2 micrometers wide. Nekton – Strongly swimming consumers such as fish, turtles, and wales. Benthos – Consumers that dwell on the bottom of the ocean. Decomposers – Mostly bacteria that break down the organic compounds in the dead bodies and wastes of aquatic organisms into simple nutrient compounds for use by producers. Euphotic Zone - Upper layer of the water in which sunlight can penetrate. Coastal Zone – Warm, nutrient-rich, shallow water that extends from the high-tide mark on land to the gently sloping, shallow edge of the continental shelf. Estuary – Partially enclosed area of coastal water where seawater mixes with freshwater and nutrients from rivers, streams and runoff from land. Coastal Wetlands – River mouths, inlets, bays, sounds and salt marshes. Intertidal Zone – The area of the shoreline between low and high tides. Open Sea – The vast volume of the Ocean Freshwater Life Zones – Occur where water with a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1% by volume accumulates on or flows through the surfaces of terrestrial biomes. Lakes – Large natural bodies of standing fresh water formed when precipitation, runoff, or groundwater seepage fill depressions in the Earth’s surface. Epilimnion – Water near the surface, which is heated by the sun and mixed by the action of wind and waves, becomes a distinct layer of warm well-oxygenated water. Spring Turnover – In spring as ice melts and the surface water warms, it actually becomes denser; it sinks and sets up a convection mixing nutrients from the bottom and oxygen from the surface. Oligotrophic Lake – Small supply of plant nutrients Eutrophic Lake – Large supply of plant nutrients Mesotrophic Lake – Lakes that fall between these two extremes Surface Water – Precipitation that doesn’t sink into the ground Runoff – Precipitation that flows into streams Watershed/Drainage Basin – Land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream. Inland Wetlands – Lands covered with fresh water al of part of the time and located away from coastal areas. Chapter 8 – Community Ecology Species Equilibrium Model/Theory of Island Biogeography – Widely accepted model where a balance between two factors determines the number of different species found on an island: the rate at which new species immigrate to the island and the rate at which existing species become extinct on the island. Indicator Species – Species that are so strongly associated with an environment that they are excellent indicators of key environmental conditions. Interspecific Competition – Competition between species for shared or scarce resources such as space and food. Resource Partitioning – When species competing for similar scarce resources evolve more specialized traits that allow them to use shared resources at different times, in different ways, or in different places. Predation – Members of one species feed directly on all or part of a living organism of another species. Parasitism – Occurs when one species feeds on part of another organism, usually by living on or in the host. Endoparasites – Tapeworms, disease-causing microorganisms, and other organisms that live inside their hosts. Ectoparasites – Organisms that attach themselves to the outside of their hosts. Mutualism – Two species interact in a way that benefits both. Commensalism – Species interaction that benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other species. Ecological Succession – Gradual change in species composition of a given area. Primary Succession – Involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities on nearly lifeless ground. Secondary Succession – Biotic communities are established in an area where some type of biotic community is already present. Pioneer Species – Species that attach themselves to inhospitable patches of bare rock. Early Successional Plant Species – Grow close to the ground, can establish large populations quickly under harsh conditions, and have short lives. Mid-Successional Plant Species - Herbs, grasses, and low shrubs. Late Successional Plant Species – Plants that can tolerate shade. Disturbance – A change in environmental conditions that disrupts a community or ecosystem. Inertia/Persistence – The ability of a living system to resist being disturbed or altered. Constancy: The ability of a living system such as a population to keep its numbers within the limits imposed by available resources. Resilience – The amount of disturbance that a living system can successfully absorb without being fundamentally changed. Complexity – The number of species in a community at each trophic level and the number of trophic levels in a community. Precautionary Principle – When there is evidence that a human activity can harm our health or bring about changes in environmental conditions that can affect our economies or quality of life, we should take measures to prevent harm
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