PS101 Final Exam Notes.docx

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Environmental Studies
Robert Mc Leman

PS101 Final Exam NotesLecture OneBasic research Involves seeking new knowledge and to exploring and advancing scientific understandingApplied research Conducted specifically for the purpose of solving practical problems and improving peoples quality of lifeClinical Psychologists Responsible for the assessment diagnosis and treatment of serious psychological disordersSchoolEducational Psychologists Assess matters related to academic social linguistic or vocational problemsIndustrialOrganizational HealthSportForensicSocialDevelopmentalPersonality Lecture TwoHistory of PsychologyWilhelm Wundt Founder of Psychology Germany Conducted experiments Questioned experience Immediate conscious Belief that all experience could be reduced to basic elements Goal DefineExplain the structure of conscious experience His experiments Reaction times Attention span Perception of visual stimuli touch and hearingTwo Schools of Thought1 Structuralism 101 Titchener student of Wilhelm Belief that all experience could be reduced to basic elemeents Could identify structures Ex chemistry Used introspection Problem Lots of criticism not objective2 Functionalism Focus not on the structure of consciousness but with how mental processes function How do we use mental processes to adapt and survive The scope of psychology increases with functionalism Includes behaviour as well as mental processes Includes children animals the intellectually challenged WhyThese groups excluded because they couldnt be trained to do introspection Influence by Darwin On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection and Galton Genetic Inheritance on Mental AbilitiesPsychology in North America William James Advocated for functionalismBook 1890 Principles of Psychology Mental processes are fluid not rigid like structuralism APAWho won the Battle Most historians give the edge to James and the functionalists Depending on introspection does not allow for any independent objective evaluation of a claim Today psychologists are not really categorized as structuralists or functionalists Applied psychology and Behaviourism AKA descendants of functionalism Behaviourism early 1900s The next major school of thought to influence the development of psychologyBehaviourism John B Watson USA Founded behaviourism PsychologyScientific study of behaviour BehaviourOvert or observable responses or activities Radical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behaviour Study of consciousness is abandoned StimulusAny detectable input from the environmentSigmund Freud and the Concept of the Unconscious Mind Austria Founded psychoanalytic school of thought Emphasis on unconscious processes influencing behaviour UnconsciousThoughts memories and desires that are below the surface of conscious awareness but exert great influence on behaviourBehaviourism revisited BF Skinner USA Environmental factors determine behaviour Responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeated Responses that leave to negative outcomes are not repeated Beyond Freedom and Dignity More controversy regarding free will and the debate between nature VS nurture
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