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Environmental Studies
Denise Grafton

Review Package Week 1: Chapter 1, 2 and 3 Definitions: Wildlife: things that are living outside direct human control and therefore include those plants and animals that are not cultivated or domesticated  The practical ecology of all vertebrates and their plant and animal association  Considered a renewable resource Management: implies the influence and application of human manipulation over wildlife  Use the term conservation instead of management as it assumes humans must manage the environment  Rooted in human ethics, culture, perception and legal concepts Maximum yield: the desires of hunters and other consumers of the wildlife Optimum yield: which responds collectively to the demands of a broad cross section of human society and sustains the natural diversity of species within wildlife communities Key Ideas: The United States of America:  In 1940, President Franklin Roosevelt created US fish and Wildlife Services as fish were considered a separate topic  Marine fisheries are subjected by the National Marine Fisheries Service [Component of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the Department of Commerce]  Wildlife belongs to the state or nation Canada:  Aquatic animals are handled under Department of Fisheries and Oceans, with other wildlife until Canadian Wildlife Services  Wildlife belongs to the province or native Europe:  Animals are the legal property of landowners and the regulation of wildlife population remains the responsibility of the owners Key impacts on Wildlife:  Urbanization and Industrialization are the two most obvious influences that reduce the quality and quantity of wildlife habitat  173 species are extinct with 157 since 1700AD Ecological Knowledge Application of ecological knowledge is used to create a balance between people’s needs and the needs of the animals  called Wildlife Management It is applied in three ways:  Preservation: where nature is allowed to take its course without human intervention  Direct manipulation: when animals are trapped, shot, poisoned and stocked  Indirect manipulation: when vegetation, water or other key components of wildlife are altered Government Legislation:  1800, North America o Added a clause to reduce the hunting season, decreased bag limits and previously accepted methods of hunting were curtailed or eliminated o Buck Law: 1738, Virginia  Only allowed to legally kill antlered bucks o Bag limit: 1878, Iowa  Only 25 prairie chickens were allowed to be caught each day  1937, United States o Congress passes the Pittman- Roberston Act  This places a 10% tax on the sales of sporting arms and ammunition; This tax went to wildlife management and research  1960, North America o There was an increase of respect for the environment and reduced the voice of hunters Migratory Bird Treaty in 1916 and Migratory Bird Treaty Act in 1918  Prior to this bill, hunters could kill as many waterfowl as they could shoot, and would shoot an excessive amount of shells (10+) per bird; thought to catch 1,000 ducks per shooter/per time  After these bills, there were a decrease of destructive hunting Theodore Roosevelt  1903: National Wildlife Refuge system was created for herons and egrets on Pelican Island in Florida  51 million ha of land was reserved to create national forests (now has more than 525 million ha)  His goal “a movement whose goal is the conservation and restoration of wildlife populations and wildlife habitats and from the context of that movement has evolved the practice of wildlife management” Bison:  There was a great slaughter of bison in the 19 century with over 1.5 million hides sold between 1872-23  They US bison barely escaped extinction with the last European dying in 1921.  Canada initiated a protection program in Alberta called “bison park” which stated with a heard of 5,000 animals and has increased to 30,000 o They used a studbook  which lists pure breed animals which can be used to increase the population o Wild turkey and wood ducks had similar situations Passenger Pigeon: th  Most numerous bird at the beginning of the 20 century  In 1878, more than 1.5 million were sent to market, however many of them would spoil due to the lack of refrigeration  Last one died in 1914 o Labrador duck has the similar fates William T. Hornday  Thought that wild predators were the source of evil so he would kill many foxes, wolves, weasels and common crow as a way to eradicate evil Hunting:  Governments would pay for the capture and death of an animal, however it failed due to hunters brining an item that is not actually from what they wanted  Poisoning has killed other species rather than the desired species  Overprotecting some animals, has lead to uncontrolled population growth, starvation and damaged habitats Lead poisoning:  Hunters used to shoot animals through the use of lead bullets to kill animals, however approximately 3 000 tones of lead a year would remain from the casings (which animals would eat)  In 1976, the Secretary of Interior in the United States forced them to use steel shots however: o Crippling loss: less birds were killed from the bullets as they were not as dense o Gun Damage: it was thought that the hardness of the bullets would ruin the barrels, however it was proven not true o Cost: there was a 25% increase, which equated to $5 per season  Lead shots would not be able to used after 1991 Wood box program:  Due to the decrease of wood ducks, they build wood boxes for the animals to live due to the decreasing population  This helped to regain the population to prevent it from extinction Wild Turkey:  Due to the decrease of wild turkey population, the only way to prevent extinction was to hunt male turkeys in spring  After this “gobbler hunt” in 1970, the population has greatly increased Marine Mammals:  The Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) provided federal protection for marine mammals within territorial waters in the US  Through this act, sea otters were increased on the pacific coast due to the use of transplanted gene Wildlife Management:  This includes 3 key elements: o Biological and ecological knowledge of the species and environment o Determination of the limitation o Application of a proper course of action initiated with an appropriate level of public support Week 2: Population Biology and Ecology (Chapter 4 & 5) Key Terms:  Ecosystem – any area or volume in which there is an exchange of matter and energy between living and nonliving parts; that is, the biotic community together wuth soil, air, water, and sunlight form an ecosystem. Ecosystems are the best units for studying the flow of energy and matter. Trophic levels are the functional parts of an ecosystem  Predator – an organism that depends in total or part on killing another animal for its food. Bobcats, owls, and bass are well-known predators, but so are shrews, robins, bullfrogs, and dragonflies. A few species of plants also are predaceous (e.g., Venus flytrap).  Prey – an organism killed and eaten by a predator. Most prey species are herbivores (e.g., rabbits)  Territoriality – the ranking of a region as a territory; a pattern of animal behavior marked by the establishment, demarcation, and defense of an area that can support the growth and activity of an animal or group of animals  Resource partitioning – in the animal world, only the fit survives. In the plant kingdom, resources partition enables the smaller plants to have equal resources as the larger ones. It is the balance of nature that keeps everything treated equally.  Nutrient deficiencies – absence or insufficiency of some factor needed for normal growth and development  Buffer species – a food species of secondary preference that gains importance under adverse conditions. Buffer species are usually harder to obtain and/or are less palatable than primary foods but form an alternate diet when major foods are scarce or absent. Ruffed grouse become buffer species when lynxes can no longer find snowshoe hares. A rarer meaning of the term is applied to a less-prized game animal. For example, when mallards are not abundant or have a small bag limit, duck hunters instead may shoot blue-winged teal as a buffer species.  Population – a group of organisms, usually of the same species, occupying a defined area during a specific time  Adaptation – the process or state of changing to fit a new environment or different conditions, or the resulting change  Heat stress – thermal stress occurs when releases of heat influence the ecosystem  Density-dependence factor – a factor that acts in proportion to the density of animals. Some diseases are density dependent because a higher percentage of the population becomes infected as density increases. Natality and mortality often fluctuate with changes in density  Succession – the orderly progression through time of changes in community composition, usually described in terms of plant life. Unless interrupted, succession passes through intermediate stages from pioneer to climax communities. Managers often manipulate succession – with fire, grazing, or other means – thereby creating habitat conditions favoring selected species of wildlife.  Carrying capacity – the maximum population an environment can sustain without causing damage such as over browsing. Measured in terms of biomass or number of animals per species per unit area.  Energy flows – the flow of energy through the biological food chain  Biodiversity – the range of organisms present in a particular ecological community or system. It can be measured by the numbers and types of different species, or the genetic variations within and between species.  Nutrient cycles – is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of living matter Chapter 4: Ecosystems and Natural Communities  Each species we call wildlife participates in a vast network of life-a system in which nonliving elements are brought into the tissues of living organisms. These elements then undergo exchanges between plants and animals and then enters the physical environment again  Biotic Community/Community: living part of an ecosystem  An ecosystem consists of several communities. These communities have distinct groups of plants and animals. Each species in a community plays a role that is either obvious or obscure  Environments can be modified by internal or external factors-operate concurrently - sometimes obviously or subtly, natural or not. E.g. aging is internal and natural, weathering- internal (vegetation) and external (climate)  Wildlife managers are concerned with humanmade (or external) factors bearing on ecosystems (e.g. mineral or energy extraction, urban development, etc.)  Wildlife management frequently involves intentional manipulation of some parts of ecosystem and natural communities  Tampering with one component can produce unexpected and farreaching effects of other components  Chernobyl-thermal explosion at a nuclear power plant. People died or suffering from long- term effects of radiation  Biosphere: part of the Earth that extends from a few hundred meters beneath the surface to several kilometers into the atmosphere-where life flourishes  Ecosystems are generally self-sustaining but they require an external source of energy that almost always comes from the Sun  Cities do not qualify as ecosystems because they are not self-sustaining and daily import large amounts of matter and energy  Plants and animals are formed of materials-matter that occur in the physical environment of the Earth and its atmosphere  Carbon atoms form the basis of life and exist in carbon dioxide which constitutes a small fraction of the atmosphere as well as hydrogen  P, Ca, K, S, Fe, Na form animals and humans and are found in the crust of the Earth  In most ecosystems, herbivores eat plants, carnivores eat herbivores  Food chains are established as pathways by which nutrients flow through ecosystems  Bacteria and fungi are the prime agents of decomposition, as well as other insects and other invertebrates aid in the breakdown. Without decomposers, the nutrients necessary for life would remain bound up in dead plants and animals  Energy is required for all metabolic processes (build cells, tissues and organs, thermoregulation, muscle activity and digestion)  Net primary production: the energy incorporated into green plants by photosynthesis  Second law of thermodynamics: transformation of energy is not 100 percent. Energy is lost as heat. E.g. as you move upwards in the food chain, less energy is consumed  Every 50,000 calories of sunlight produces only 1000 calories of energy in a plant  The conversion of sunlight to alfalfa is 0.02 percent efficient and beef to human tissue is 0.7  10 percent estimating the percentage of energy converted between links in most food chains  Energy that is not lost in the conversion is either indigestible, used for maintenance activity  Growing population requires a positive energy balance  Food chains: are the routes taken by energy and nutrients through an ecosystem. Producers (plants), primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers (carnivores/predators). Each link is the “trophic level”  Nutrients and energy travel through a food web  Inefficient transfer of energy rom one trophic level to another can cause:  1. Less energy available at each successive trophic level in an ecosystem  2. Length of food chain is limited  Biomass: weight of living tissue  Prey populations limit the abundance of predators (e.g. deer can exist without wolves but wolves cannot exist without deer)  Artificial ecosystems require more energy (food from the grocery store-sun gives energy to food, grown in fields shipped to stores)  Very little energy remains after three or four steps, therefore there are usually not more trophic levels than this in natural ecosystems  Range of tolerance: upper or lower optimal limit of the range is exceeded, the efficiency of metabolic or reproductive processes falters and organisms begin to experience difficult circumstances  Weather, thermal gradient and aridity and humidity are important to range of tolerance  Steno-narrow, eury-wide (e.g. eurythermal-wide range of temperatures)  Climographs-depict monthly temperatures and precipitation and important for appraising a broad range of environmental conditions  Plants and animals survive so long as they compete successfully for resources. Each species is the product of a long evolutionary history that is governed largely by competition. Genetic difference ultimately decide competitive success. Species steadily fit into their environment.  Specialists: the fit in some species is quite tight and there is little or no room for dealing with changes or for colonizing different habitats  Generalists: can deal with a broader set of environmental conditions  Niche: each species has a unique role in an ecosystem. A niche emphasizes function within an ecosystem  Ecological equivalents: species living in different geographical areas but fulfilling the same roles in their respective communities  Time, location, and manner of feeding may be specialized in ways that greatly reduce or avoid competition  The ability to match habitats to the niche requirements of a species is of fundamental importance to wildlife management  Two species cannot occupy the same niche  Natural communities show patterns in time and space. Many features of communities clearly reflect the regional climate  Biomes: similar communities into larger units. The names are to reflect the dominant type of vegetation (Grassland, deciduous forest, desert, tundra, rain forest, coniferous forest, and chaparral). Most systems refine these into units such as Boreal Forest and Alpine Tundra based on latitude or altitude  Succession: composition of natural communities in a sequential process  Pioneer community: first step in succession. Is caused by a disturbance, either natural or caused by humans initiates development (e.g. southeastern Canada-abandoned farmlands)  Climax community: last in the full sequence  Primary succession: occurs when no community previously existed (newly formed volcanic island)  Secondary succession: takes place where there are remnants of a previous community  Dynamic equilibrium: self-perpetuating community  In either primary or secondary succession, a series of different communities gradually and sequentially occupies a site until a climax community is established  Aquatic systems also undergo ecological succession because a lake is formed by a receding glacier  Oligotrophic: “few nutrients”, lakes that are geologically young Chapter 5: Population Ecology  Organization of a population-management problem. Helps to identify factors that are more responsible for preventing the further growth of he population. These factors impede births increase death or both.  A. Extrinsic Factors  1. Density-independent (primarily weather conditions)  a. Cause of direct mortality?  b. Center or periphery of species range?  c. Does weather have a substantial influence on food quality or quantity- which are density-dependent factors?  2. Density dependent  a. Food  1. Quality. Are necessary nutrients present?  2. Quantity. Is enough food available?  b. Cover  1. Shelter from elements. Are quality and quantity sufficient?  2. Escape or hiding cover-for predators or from predators. Are quality and quantity sufficient?  c. Refugia available  d. Competitors  e. Disease and parasites  f. Predators  g. Buffer species  h. Hunting harvest  i. Interactions  B. Intrinsic Factors  1. Genetically stable factors  a. Litter or brood sizes  b. Longevity  c. Habitat selection for breeding, feeding, resting  d. Self-limiting factors  e. Dispersal  f. Interactions  2. Genetically variable factors  a. Birth rates. Within the physiological limits of the species, does the population show varying birth rates?  b.Survival rates. Does a population differ genetically from time to time in the ability of individuals to withstand stress or has there been a response to a strong selective factor such as disease or biocides?  Simplest approach is to examine weather, food, cover, and behavioral nature. If nothing can be detected by the obvious factors, look at subtle interactions  Metapopulations: groups of local populations of a species. Each group occupies separate patches of habitat, which are often connected by corridors through which dispersal and exchange may occur. Due to each group being relatively isolated, each group within the metapopulation is prone to extirpation (or local extinction). E.g. cotttontails  Model: any physical or abstract representation of the structure and function of a real system  The mule deer in Colorado model was used to illustrate 3 basic values:  1. Forces the researcher to think about population dynamics in new ways (conceptual value)  2. The researcher must become aware of the usefulness of various types of information necessary to construct an accurate model and therefore the information necessary to understand population functions  3. The model may be useful in predicting future courses of the modeled population by adjusting rates of exploitation or by altering the environment  The variables used to model the mule deer population were:  Food, weather, food consumption, nutrients in food, other animals as predators, or competitors, age, sex and number of deer present, natural mortality, hunter harvest, age structure, birth dates and condition of the deer. And precipitation-birth rates and nitrogen in water  2001-world population was 6.1 million...increasing each year by 1.6 percent...2050- 9 billion  Human inventiveness increasing Earth’s carrying capacity:  Hunting and gathering  Agriculture  Industrialization, mechanization, rapid transportation, trade  Green revolution (high-yield grains)  Wildlife management goal of balancing the needs of other animals and those of humans is weighted by the sheer numbers and “humane” priority of our own species  Will human numbers be controlled by natural checks as starvation and territorial defense or by intelligent application of methods to reduce birth rates to match death rates, the latter of which have been lowered by advances in medical care  Wildlife management involves manipulation of populations, therefore an understanding of population ecology is essential  Basic population attributes:  Density  Sex ratios  Age structure  Natality  Mortality  Immigration  Emigration  Factors acting to limit populations in the centre of a species’ geographic range are usually dependent upon the density of the population  Species at the periphery of their range are frequently controlled by density-independent factors  Wildlife manager should seek reasons for imbalances in birth and death rates, immigration and emigration. Can be caused by adequacies or inadequacies of food and cover in the environment  Life tables are useful for comparing mortality among various populations to locate age classes affected most by mortality  The principles of population ecology apply to humans as well as to other species and the future of wildlife depends as much on management of the human population as it does on management of other species Week 3 – Attitudes, Perspectives & Roles of Government & NGOs Kellert – Table 10.1 (attitude scale on views towards wildlife & nature) Attitude Key Identifying Terms Highly Correlated Most Antagonistic With: Toward: Naturalistic Wildlife exposure, contact Ecologistic, Negativistic w. nature Humanistic Ecologistic Ecosystem, species Naturalistic, Negativistic interdependence Scientistic Humanistic Pets, love for animals Moralistic Negativistic Moralistic Ethical concern for animal Humanistic Utilitarian, welfare dominionistic, scientistic, aesthetic, negativistic Scientistic Curiosity, study, Ecologistic None knowledge Aesthetic Artistic character & Naturalistic Negativistic display Utilitarian Practicality, usefulness Dominionistic Moralistic Dominionistic Mastery, superiority Utilitiarian, Moralistic negatvisitic Negativistic Avoidance, dislike, Dominionistic, Moralistic, humanistic, indifference, fear Utilitarian Naturalistic Terms & Concepts Lahey Act(1900) – protects both plants & animals by creating civil & criminal penalties for a wide array of violations. Also prohibits trade in wildlife, fish and plants that have been illegally taken, transported or sold. Utilitarian – derivation of benefit to society Ecological – essential Earth functions preserved that support life Aesthetic – beauty & psychological Biocentric – species have a right to survive as much as us humans do. Ecocentric – ecological political philosophy to denote a nature –centred system of values (anthropocentric = human focused) NEPA – National Environmental Policy Act (1969) – enhancement of environment and ensuring environmental quality – brought uniformity to the ways and means federal agencies address environmental issues. - at the core of NEPA is the EIS (environmental impact statement) Subsistence – the action of maintain or supporting oneself at minimum level SARA – Species at Risk Act (2002), piece of Canadian federal legislation; aims to protect threatened or endangered species and their habitats. Also manages species that are not yet threatened, but whose existence or habitat is in jeopardy. Notes to mention from assigned readings – Chap 10 – Hunting & Trapping 4 social precursors to the animal rights movement - (1) An urban view of nature that is disconnected from the reality of wild nature (2) Popularized interpretations of science on television or in published media (3) Anthropomorphism (the application of human traits) especially feelings to nonhuman animals (4) An egalitarian notion that assigns the same legal and ethical rights to animals as it does to humans - Hunting has contributed to culture and society in North America, among them art & literature, control of wildlife pests and the damage they cause, individual and family development, food and income and maintaining and improving connections between people and the land. 4 ways to minimize conflicts between hunters and antihunters when policies for wildlife management are formulated (Kellert) 1. Place greater educational emphasis on the ecologistic attitude as a way of establishing a dialogue between hunters and antihunters. This attitude possesses viewpoints compatible with the perception of both groups. 2. Encourage greater governmental recognition of different attitudes towards animals as reflecting multiple uses and satisfactions derived from wildlife. 3. Diversify wildlife funding sources to include contributions from antihunters and other potential non-consumptive users of wildlife resources 4. Increase attention and financial allocation for nongame research and recreational programmes. *50 mammals and 40 birds became extinct in the 3000 years preceding 1600, a rate of about 3 per century. Since 1600, the extinction rate has increased to 19 species per century. Maximum sustained yield: largest average harvest that can be taken continuously from a population under existing conditions. It is attainable when (1) a population is kept at a level of about half of its carrying capacity and (2) the harvest takes the annual production of the population. Adaptive harvest management – applies the flow of new data to continually update two or more competing hypotheses (or models) with the goal of strengthening the acceptance and influence of those that best reflect the actual outcome. Millennium Accord (2000) – purpose is to (1) create the philosophical environment for consensus and action on hunting related programs, strategies and initiatives (2) publicize and renew hunters’ contributions and commitments to wildlife conservation (3) provide focus of hunters’ efforts in wildlife conservation, hunter education, safety, recruitment, ethics and cooperative initiatives with others (4) provide a basis for reporting progress toward reaching these goals by agencies and organizations associated with hunting. Oppose Trapping Defend Trapping Cause animals undue suffering Harvest data from trappers help wildlife managers keep track of furbearer populations Taking an animal’s life for the name of Provides an annual crop of furs that fashion is immoral otherwise would be lost to other forms of mortality Kills or maims many nontarget species Fur sales help the economic welfare of individuals Rabies, distemper and other diseases are suppressed Inevitable death of an animal probably is less painful for a trapped animal than it would be from starvation, predation or other “natural causes” (a) Trappers will adopt state-of-the-art technology for humanely trapping animals and support research designed to improve said technology (b) The public will recognize the validity of social, economic, culture and ecological reasons for trapping (c) Wildlife agencies will maintain their interest in furbearer populations and regulate trapping in regard to human interests (d) Biologists will equip themselves with the knowledge necessary to explain why trapping is a part of wildlife management and performs several functions including those affecting the welfare and management of other species and their habitat. View pg. 197 – Summary of Statements & Arguments about Trapping Summary for Chapter 10 - hunters view their sport from a utilitarian, dominionistic and naturalistic standpoint - management should adopt a strategy of optimum yield which considers ecological, social and economic factors - biological theory suggests that maximum harvests may be attained by trimming a population to half its carrying capacity. Chapter 16 – Wildlife in Parks & Refuges - educating large numbers of people about wildlife while avoiding the disturbance of natural processes remains a paradox of park management. - in 1916, US Congress formalized the purpose of national parks with 3 mandates: 1. national parks be maintained in absolutely unimpaired form for the use of future generations 2. set apart for the use, observation, health and pleasure of the people 3. the national interest must dictate all decisions affecting public or private enterprise in the parks. - view pg 354 for 7 point statement on management of national parks – - Case study 16.4 on the management of bears in national parks – Transfrontier conservation parks – opens national boundaries to the movements of tourist and wildlife as well as assisting in the development of local economies. Emphasize regional peace and stability, create new jobs associate with tourism and protect biodiversity. Some functions of Refuges – 1. Endangered species: provide habitat for about 60 species of endangered animals 2. Rest stops for migratory birds 3. Protection of unique or highly productive natural systems 4. Wildlife – dependent recreation 5. Areas of research Chap 22 – Wildlife as a Public Trust American Game Policy – proposed a seven point program designed to blend the interests of the land and landowners, game and hunters and the public into a feasible means for restoring game as a natural resource. Seven basic actions are: 1. Extend as much as possible public ownership and management of “game lands” including those lands whose primary function might be for other purposes such as forestry 2. Recognize landowners as custodians of public game on privately owned lands, including protecting owners from damage and providing them with compensation for labour and use of land. 3. Experiment with ways to bring the hunters, the landowner, and the public into a productive relationship with one another and then encourage the relationships that promise the most for game management 4. Train people in the skills of game management, thereby establishing a profession like forestry, agriculture, etc 5. Determine the facts about the ways and means of making land produce more game 6. Recognize nonhunters and scientists as partners with hunters and landowners for the conservation of wildlife including joint sponsorship of management activities and funding requirements 7. Provide funding from general taxation for the bettering of all kinds of wildlife with the hunters paying for those activities that alone serve game species. Private funding should help carry the costs of wildlife education and research. Table 22-1 pg 501 – Partial Listing of Federal Agencies Having Responsibilities for Wildlife Management - Effective enforcement of conservation laws is based on (1) the public’s acceptance and ability to comply (2) risk and severity of punishment and (3) personnel *the rapid advance of science often outpaces our understanding of potential environmental hazards. This is amply illustrated by the application of nuclear energy without simultaneous development of adequate means for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (1937)- 11% tax on sporting arms and ammunition Fish & Wildlife Coordination Act – (1) massive dislocations of water supplies no longer can be achieved legally without first considering fish and wildlife values (2) additional land or water acquisitions of equal value can be required if the project jeopardizes existing wildlife habitat. North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) (1986) – protection and management of key wetlands in Canada, Mexico and US. Goals include protecting 2.4 million ha of wetlands and to attain a continental breeding population of 62 million waterfowl. Under this act, wetlands will be purchased or protected with leases or easements and owners of private land will receive economic incentives for implementing soil and water practices that favour waterfowl. As Canada’s national conservation agency, the Canadian Wildlife Service plays 3 key roles (1) to work nationally and internationally to ensure the conservation of migratory wildlife (2) to protect, manage and rehabilitate habitats of significance to migratory birds and species at risk and (3) to serve as the lead agency for the protection of species at risk. Summary: - hunting in North America should become institutionalized as an ecological experience – less of a right and more of a privilege. -in 1930, the public policy for wildlife management in the US emphasized game species - changing attitudes and concerns of the US public produced a new policy in 1973 stressing ecological ethics for the continued enrichment of humans - conservation policies are influenced by current biological information, law enforcement and compliance, social and economic factors, new technology and legal jurisdiction. - national polices such as the Lacey Act, established the first federal involvement with wildlife management Week 4  Consumptive: are things such as hunting, trapping, cutting tree, mining, to use by altering or removing the natural resources.  Nonconsumptive Use such as bird watching, ecotourism, hiking. Defined as using without removal or alteration of the natural resources.  Research value- animals may have certain characteristic or properties valuable to research.  Cost-Benefit Analysis- comparing the costs of a project to the benefits or profits the completion of the project will bring. It is hard to quantify or give a monetary value to benefits of preserving lands for aesthetic or non consumptive activities. Often cost-benefit analysis only looks at the financial aspects of a project not other effects such as the environment.  Multiplier effects  Humane trapping- using trapping techniques that reduce the suffering of the animal thus, using traps that kill instantly compared to leg hold traps which keep the animal alive until released or killed. Also humane trapping is increased by having more education about how to trap properly and having strict guidelines.  Wildlife farming/ranching- farming animals that are usually native to an area and are not traditionally domesticated, usually raised for hunting but can just be raised for food.  CITES- convention on international trade in endangered species and wild fauna and flora. Involves 125 nations looking at how animals are effected by trade also used to stop trade of endangered species.  Aesthetic values- widespread interest in nature generates large sums of money spent on travel, film, field guides and others goods and services.  Sport versus commercial sport use is hunting for the joy of hunting and usually for big game and trophy animals. Commercial use includes wildlife farming, fishier, trapping as aspect that involves the sale of animals or animal products. Week 5 – More Wildlife Biology and Ecology (p. 70-91, 98-117, 118-148) Chapter 6: Animal Behaviour and Wildlife Management - Darwin found more than a century ago that animal behaviour combines instinct and experience o Ethology: study of animal behaviour has emerged as a distinctive combination of biology and psychology and emphasizes inherent behaviour in natural situations o Psychology: more traditional study of behaviour, concentrates on learned characteristics and seeks an understanding of human behaviour as its ultimate goal - Behavioural patterns of animals are often complex, and the result of both inherent traits and from learned responses to settings and stimuli o Animal behaviour is an essential component in the ecology and management of wildlife populations 6.1: Habitat Selection - Selection of an appropriate habitat (settings that favour successful reproduction and survival) is an example of innate behaviour o Wildlife managers cannot judge the adequacy of habitat solely by human standards because an environment that is apparently suitable in the eyes of humans in fact may be deficient in the perception of animals o Management plans thus must match the instinctive behavioural patterns of species 6.2: Courtship Behaviour - ‘Here I am’ call functions as a mechanism for attracting mates o Courtship displays are frequently elaborate and highly ritualized, they are played to heighten intraspecific recognition in order to reduce the chances of hybridization o This behaviour often provides a useful means for estimating the abundance of animal populations  Ex. Biologists and amateur cooperators gather on Spring evenings in eastern North America to count male woodcocks by their call - Survey results of counting calls must be applied with caution as these surveys focus almost entirely on the male species and variations in sez ratios therefore can introduce distortions in population estimates 6.3: Reproductive Physiology and Behaviour - Animal reproduction normally follows a rather rigid sequence that involves the interactions of photoperiod (relative length of days and nights that stimulates the release of hormones from the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulate the enlargement of the sex organs), weather, endocrine glands and sex-specific behaviour o Most wild birds require a suitable environment for completing the reproductive process  This is the reason many species do not breed in captivity; one or more crucial environmental factors are absent 6.4: Territorial Behaviour - Territory: Individuals (usually the males) of many species claim and defend specific sites, varying in size, against other members of the same species o Usually part of a larger unit called a home range, a sometimes shared area in which an individual conducts its normal daily activities (resting, foraging, water areas, etc) o Territories are proclaimed with some combination of visual displays, threats, sounds and scent, and are defended at times in ways that may involve violent behaviour  In some cases, the home range is defended as well o Energy spent defending and maintaining territories must be repaid with increased survival or productivity of the territorial animals o Territories set a limit on the sizes of breeding populations, representing a wealth of resources in a place where an animal can reproduce and rear a family in relative prosperity  Territorial behaviour thus can restrict breeding, thereby regulating the rate at which populations expand 6.5: Sexual Segregation - Many species are sexually dimorphic (distinguishable male and female) o In some species, each sex occupies separate habitats during the year 6.6: Circadian Rhythms - Circadian: approximately one day, therefore circadian rhythms refer to the activities of animals that show regular patterns throughout the day o Most animals typically feed at certain times of the day or night and remain inactive at other times 6.7: Dispersal - Dispersal: phenomenon where young animals leave the home range in which they were reared and wander varying distances to a new location o Due to their lack of experience and knowledge, young dispersing animals often experience higher mortality rates than resident animals - Effects of dispersal include: o Maintenance of genetic variability within a species o Repopulation of depleted areas o Colonization of new areas when suitable habitat becomes available - Suggested types of dispersal: o Innate Dispersal: tendency of young animals to leave their natal areas and thereby prevent inbreeding o Environmental Dispersal: behavioural response to stresses such as shortages of food or space 6.8: Responses of Wildlife to Humans - Behavioural responses to the presence of humans are important factors in the survival of animals o Normal behavioural responses have been used by biologists for estimating species numbers  Most animals respond to humans by hiding or fleeing, but others may develop a tentative trust, particularly if rewards of food or shelter are part of the bargain  In some instances, problems are created for both animals and humans when wildlife habituates to people 6.9: Imprinting and Parental Care - Imprinting: a type of permanent learning that takes place during a relatively brief period of responsiveness early in the life of some animals o Implications of imprinting in wildlife management are varied o The secretive nature of wild animals makes it difficult to study maternal behaviour 6.10: Migration - Migration: simple act of moving from one spatial unity to another, some believe this movement is periodic, involving a round trip o Many species make use of migration across varying distances of land and water as a means of survival - Birds: waterfowl offer many useful examples of the relationships between migratory behaviour and wildlife management o Migrational homing: the return of adult hens to the same nesting area year after year o Pioneering: search for new nesting sites within a species o Birds can exploit resources on a seasonal basis allowing for the recovery of food supplies in the off season o Migration includes a large expenditure of energy and for some species a crucial dependence on resting and feeding sites along the way - Reptiles: some reptiles make seasonal voyages of hundreds or thousands of kilometers - Mammals: only four groups of mammals undergo regular migrations o Bats o Cetaceans (whales, porpoises) o Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions) o Large hooved herbivores  Altitude migrations are more common amongst deer and other mountainous mammals - Invertebrates: various orders of insects include migratory species (Monarch butterflies) 6.11: Managing Migratory Animals - Management requires coordination between the political units so that a species is not overexploited when it falls under the temporary jurisdiction of one state or nation o Ex. Open seas, the endangered status of several species of whale and sea turtles o Ex. The Migratory Bird Treaty signed in 1916 protected migratory birds crossing the borders of both the United States of America and Canada 6.12: Too Many Geese - 1997: committee of wildlife biologists in North America assessed the exploding population of white geese o Geese have benefited from an abundance of agricultural foods on their wintering grounds and by spring are in top physical condition for reproduction and returning to their nesting grounds  These conditions have removed the limits that winter carrying capacity once placed on lesser snow geese  Such an immense population number has had devastating effects on the habitat - Biologists took control of the situation and in an effort to reduce the population size and avoid an ecological failure, began using electronic calling devices during migration periods to attract geese to a location where shotguns were then put into use Summary: - Birds and mammals select suitable habitat innately, but the process can be modified by learning experiences early in life o Courtship behaviour often increases the conspicuousness of animals during the breeding season thereby offering biologists a means for estimating population sizes - Territorial behaviour is a means of spacing animals in their habitat o If habitat is limited, breeding may also be limited o In rich, diverse habitats, territories are smaller than they are in poorer habitats - Imprinting within early life experiences of young animals may determine the level of attachment to a mother figure, the future choice of mates and to some extent, the choice of habitat - Various animals migrate as a means of survival o Migratory movements may involve seasonal changes in altitude or latitude o These patterns frequently take animals across international boundaries thereby complicating management activities  This requires cooperation among nations and is best show by international treaties for the protection of migratory birds Chapter 7 – Food and Cover 7.2: Ecology and Evolution of Feeding Behaviour and Defense - Quality of food: diets of barely digestible food may carry herbivores through a lean season, but ultimately foods of good quality must be available for the growth and reproduction of animals o The diet of carnivores varies little in quality, nutrients available in the flesh of one species is quite similar to that of the flesh in another o Nutritional quality of vegetation as wildlife food usually depends on soil fertility  Poor nutrition adversely affects the physical condition of animals, as well as their reproduction o Selective feeding behaviour may partially compensate for the scarcity of some nutrients  Animals may demonstrate hungers for specific nutrients at times that may be deficient in their bodies o Young animals invariably require more protein than adults o Natural mineral springs attract wildlife, as do the surrounding soils - Quantity of food: size of a particular population determines the amount of food available for each of the species o Overbrowsing: if animals eat too much of a vegetation’s new growth, it cannot regenerate itself for the following season, thus creating a food shortage, inevitably leading to starvation within the species - Responses to food shortages o Hibernation: fairly common phenomenon in mammals, a specialized adaptive seasonal reduction in metabolism concurrent with the environmental pressures of food unavailability and low environmental temperatures - Physical Condition and Nutrition o Wildlife biologists generally assume that large reserves of body fat are useful indicators of good condition and survival 7.3: Food Management - Food habits (diets) are usually determined by examining the digestive tracts or droppings of animals o The amount and detail of food-habits information should be tied to the objectives of management o Seasonal changes in food requirements are sometimes overlooked in discussions of feeding ecology  Food habit studies might better focus on the time of year when food is scarce - If a population is too large, there are numerous actions that can be taken o Do nothing: causes starvation and long term damage to the vegetation o Reduce the animal population (increase hunting/introduce predators): liberalized hunting regulations, restoration of a somewhat more natural system and the enhancement of aesthetics within the wildlife community o Life-trapping, removal, and relocation: improves public image, costly, simply relocates the problem to begin with o Artificial feeding: encourage further expansion creating ever increasing numbers o Habitat modification: increases production of natural foods, slow response time 7.4: Cover - Advantages: o Prevents the wastage of energy by protecting animals from adverse weather or from predators and other enemies o Help predators obtain food - Shelter: body temperatures of birds and mammals are regulated internally and their activities are largely independent of ambient temperatures o Homeotherms often require cover as a means of preventing excessive buildup or loss of heat o Birds and mammals may find shelter among others in their flock or herd - Concealment: cover as a hiding place o Some states offer economic incentives for farmers to leave strips of cover for wildlife along roadsides o For most birds, the quality of nesting cover is of paramount concern o Besides the effectiveness of density, cover also may be improved if it consists of a mixture of several elements rather than one or a few kinds of vegetation  Snow is another type of importance to many kinds of wildlife 7.5: Edges and Edge Effect - Many animals frequent places in which the forest meets the field, or the water meets the shore o Edge effect: the apparent increase in abundance of wildlife at places where two habitat types meet  The attraction of simultaneous access to more than one environmental need such as food and shelter  A greater variety of vegetation including species common to each of the adjacent habitats, plus some plants characteristic of only the edge o The origin of the edge may be inherent (natural) or induced (man-made/short term)  It should not be assumed that edge inevitably increases species richness or the numbers of animals o Habitat: the resources and conditions present in an area that produce occupancy, including survival and reproduction, by a given organism Summary: - Basic essentials of wildlife habitat are food and cover o Food: supplies nutrients for the substance of the body and energy for vital processes - Habitat manipulations (rather than artificial feeding) are the best means of managing food shortages - Cover protects an animal from extremes of temperature and wind and provides concealment from predators or for predators - Habitat management for the benefit of wildlife usually aims for the interspersion of food and cover thereby creating abundant edges between these two essential elements Chapter 8: Wildlife Diseases *Note that for chapter 8, there are a variety of disease examples used in the textbook that effect a large number of species. Not all diseases are referred to in the review - Disturbance to the normal function or structure of an animal o Wildlife diseases may result from a broad array of causative agents and may be assigned to the following categories: infectious, parasitic, toxic, physiological, nutritional, congenital, and degenerative o Enzootic: chronic o Epizootic: eruptive 8.1: Why Study Wildlife Diseases? - Domestic or wild animals may serve as reservoirs or as vectors for pathogens that ultimately affect each other or humans - Addressing wildlife diseases concerns the density of animal populations o As habitat dwindles in both quality and quantity, wildlife populations become more concentrated - Diseases may cause serious losses in already small populations of endangered species - Diseases are a part of the whole spectrum of issues facing wildlife managers, they are just as much a part of the management puzzle as good habits, population dynamics, and habitat requirements 8.2: Perspectives - Some diseases are natural phenomena and their occurrences should not be viewed with alarm, whereas others indeed severely affect wildlife populations o Managers, to be effective as well as informed, must remain watchful for situations where action may lessen the impact of disease on wildlife populations or resources *See page 123 for a chart on the Selected Diseases of Wildlife - Diseases should be viewed in an ecological context o They are not a phenomena isolated in nature, and several pathogens offer useful insights about the workings within and between wildlife populations and about natural selection 8.3: Diseases and Habitat - In earlier times, the pathogens attacking wildlife populations were regarded somewhat passively by wildlife managers o Wholesale applications of remedies scarcely seemed possible even if vaccines or other treatments were available *See page 127 for chart on the Evolution of Management Responses to Wildlife Diseases - Experts in epizootiology now believe that habitat conditions influence the course of many wildlife diseases o Avian botulism: linked with habitat conditions since the earliest report of massive waterfowl deaths in 1876 o Liver flukes: deer act as reservoirs for flukes infecting livestock  Changes in land use have increased the contact between species that have differential responses to parasitic diseases - Habitats sometimes can be improved to the point where diseases may be enhanced 8.4: Diseases and Populations - The magnitude of disease losses among wildlife populations is difficult to assess, but sometimes it may be of considerable proportions 8.5: Diseases and Biological Controls - Genetically engineering diseases to control a particular species of population o Ex. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease was imported by Australians in attempt to control their native fauna whose population had soared out of control. Flies transmit the virus, and the initial outbreak reduced the population by more than 90%. The disease continues to keep the rabbit population in check 8.6: New Diseases - Diseases not previously known or recognized periodically arise the course of history o Management options focus on limiting the spread of disease 8.7: Lyme Disease - Most commonly reported vectorborne disease of humans in the Univted States o The pathogen is a spirochete bacterium which is transmitted in the northeastern US by the deer tick  These ticks have slowly been expanding their distribution in recent decades o Hunters, hikers, and others venturing into woodlands often are among the victims of Lyme disease, but infections occur anywhere there are infected ticks - Ecological changes may be responsible for the recent emergence of the disease 8.8: Wildlife Diseases and Humans - Wildlife populations serve as reservoirs or carriers for some diseases affecting humans o Sylvatic plague: may develop when humans visit prairie dog towns or other communities of wild rodents, but these are isolated exposures o Tularemia: not contagious amongst humans, contact with ticks or other arthropods that have previously fed on infected rabbits o Rabies: acquired through the bite of an infected animal, if not treated immediately, it is 100% fatal. Also known as hydrophobia  Nearly all mammals are susceptible to rabies, but the disease predominates in certain reservoirs (carnivores and bats) Summary: - Diseases exert direct and indirect influences on wildlife and often are associated with complex ecological settings before and after they strike animal populations o Animals weakened by disease often are more vulnerable to predators and wildlife may interact with domestic livestock or humans by serving as reservoirs of debilitating pathogenic agents - Ecological conditions that involve habitat quality and quantity commonly are associated with wildlife diseases o Diseases usually involve several components of an ecosystem o Knowledge of these factors and the way they interact with disease transmission is necessary for a full assessment of management option - Many diseases seem density dependent, affecting larger proportions of animal populations at high densities rather than at low densities Week 6 *make sure you also focus on what she posted online Chapter 9:  Predators: animals that survive by killing and eating other animals  Most aquatic predators are valued as game species (Salmon and Trout)  For plants, the survival of a species depends upon the evolution of an effective defense against overutilization and destruction by herbivores. Herbivores must gain their nutritional welfare from the same plants that have evolved defensive mechanisms  Herbivores must develop means of resisting carnivores or face premature death. Insects resist of avoid insectivores with protective shapes and coloration. Vertebrate prey species develop protective coloration as a means of avoiding detection. Others defend themselves against attack with their hooves or other structures. Survivors create the breeding population. Survival of predators depends on specialized behavior and physical features for capturing prey (speed, agility, claws, teeth, strength, smell and vision)  Predators hunt over large areas and generally select physically weakened prey or those in a vulnerable position relative to escape cover, as well as oddity in color, behavior or location  Predators frequently are more successful when part of the prey population is forced outside of its normal habitat. the outcast individuals thus are predisposed to predations because of their unfavorable location. As such, they present a less-fit segment of the population  Predators are managed due to human persecution, establishing controlled harvests, manipulating habitat, or directly reducing predator populations by lethal and nonlethal means  Predators do not control prey populations  Potential rate of increase for the prey population in the absence of predators and a decline in predator populations in the absence of prey  Lotka-Volterra theory: predators have more food when prey populations are high, and thus the numbers of predators increase as their death rate diminishes. The increase in predators then places more pressure on the prey population, which declines. As the prey population declines, predators find less food and their death rates increase until there are so few predators that the prey numbers again begin to increase **only is valid when the number of prey depends directly on the number of primary predators and vice
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