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ES295 Study Guide - Final Guide: Adventure Travel, Ecotourism, Anthropocentrism

Environmental Studies
Course Code
David Morris
Study Guide

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ES295 Summer 2017 Practice Exam
The questions in this practice exam are representative of the types of short
answer and long answer questions that you can expect to find on the final
exam. The final exam will also contain multiple choice questions.
The questions in this practice exam do not cover all of the material that will be
covered on the final exam. The final exam may cover anything included in the
lessons, course readings and videos.
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ES295 Practice Exam
Part A: Short Answer Questions
Answer all of the questions in this section in your exam booklet. You are encouraged to use
point form, bullets and headings, but you must provide complete thoughts, not one word
WRITE OR PRINT CLEARLY. If I cannot read your answer, I cannot give it marks.
1. What is NEAT? (1 mark)
a. Hybrid form of tourism
b. NEAT tourism, nature-base as well as ecotourism and adventure tourism
c. Creates synergy for tourist and mitigates risk of product dilution
2. What is a paper park? (1 mark)
a. A proteted park that has appliale regulations ut the regulations arent
adequately enforced
b. Protected parks started receiving designations to avoid paper park syndrome
3. Name two vernacular building types (2mark)
a. Vernacular is a building which reflects structures of local cultures such as the
indigenous culture
b. Costa Rica Tree House Lodge
c. The Ice Hotel
d. Both example represent the local culture through the structure of the building
4. Distinguish between the western environmental paradigm and the green paradigm (4 marks)
a. The western environmental paradigm:
i. Another name is the scientific paradigm
ii. Anthropocentric: belief that humans are separate from and superior to
the natural environment (more focus on the welfare of humans)
iii. Fails to take into account the ecological or socioeconomic consequences
iv. The soft ecotourist
b. the green paradigm:
i. Still in its infancy
ii. Biocentric: an approach that focuses on the welfare of the natural
iii. The hard ecotourist
5. Briefly describe the changing philosophies within the tourism industry over the past half
century. (4 marks)
a. Jarfari 4 Phases of Tourism
i. Advocacy platform (1950s and 1960s)
1. tourism was regarded as an ideal activity that resulted in many
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positive consequences for destination (few negative) (revenues,
employment and etc.)
2. mass tourism: large scale tourism
ii. Cautionary Platform (1970s)
1. Negative consequences of mass tourism became evident
2. net negative consequences for destinations unless careful
regulations are put in place
iii. Adaptancy Platform (1980s)
1. implemented tourism options that resulted in more positive
outcomes for destinations
2. alternative tourism was introduced
a. home stays, cultural villages, vacation farms
b. emergence of ecotourism
iv. Knowledge Based Platform
1. Emergence of the sustainable development paradigm
2. cosideratio a destiatio’s eiroetal ad sociocultural
carrying capacity
3. Ecotourism becomes much more popular
6. Compare and contrast soft ecotourism to hard ecotourism. (4 marks)
a. Soft ecotourism
i. Display significant anthropocentric tendencies
ii. dominated by the veneer environmentalist (green behaviour only when
iii. Desired experience: physically less taxing + supported by
b. Hard ecotourism
i. associated with a strongly biocentric attitude
ii. dominated by the cultural creative
iii. Desired experience: physical active and challenging experiences + close
personal contact with nature + making own arrangements
7. Describe some of the negative impacts of whale watching. (4 marks)
a. Whale watching became very popular within the 1950s
b. Growth of industry: decline in whale population from overharvesting
i. Global moratorium was placed on whaling
c. Pollution: noise from ships + chemical pollution + marine debris
8. Different people are attracted to different types of ecotourism. Compare the demographic
characteristics of different ecotourists (4 marks)
a. Gender: males used to be the dominant ecotourist but have transitioned to
feale’s o
i. Females: guided and guided walks
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