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Part III: The Earth - Atmosphere Interface This includes section 3_1 to 3_5. I have typed out everything that Quinton has said and even added a little extra for explanation. It includes practice quiz questions at bottom. If something is highlighted, than

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Wilfrid Laurier University
William Bill Quinton

Part III The EarthAtmosphere Interface 31 The Dynamic PlanetChapter 11The Geological Cycle While the endogenic internal system is at work building landforms the exogenic external system is wearing them down The vast givetake at the Earthatmosphereocean interface is the geological cycle It is fuelled by internal heat and solar energy from space and is influenced by the ever present levelling force of Earths gravity The hydrological cycle is the vast system that circulates water water vapour ice and energy throughout the environment It rearranges Earths materials through erosion transportation and deposition and it circulates water The rock cycle through the processes in the atmosphere crust and mantle 3 basic rock types are producedigneous sedimentary and metamorphic The tectonic cycle brings heat energy and new materials to the surface and recycles old materials to mantle depths creating movement and deformation of the crustEarth Mantle Mantle consists of 80 of earths volume Become less and less dense as you come closer to the surface Also becomes hotter and stiffens the deeper you go because of pressure Upper mantle is broken up into three parts upper mantle asthenosphere and uppermost mantle Uppermost mantle consists of lithosphereEarth is structured in layers Below methosphere is upperlower mantle outer inner core Our discussion is mainly on the lithosphere 3LithosphereCrustcontinentalcc made of granite 2700 kgmcrystalline or oceanicoc made of 3Basalt 3000kgmgranular then uppermost mantle umm Lithosphere is rigid rock Asthenosphere plastic layercan move both ways depending on load or weight on it Can react to weight The oceanic crust above it is thinner than the continental crust above it The thick cc pushes lithosphere downward more than ocIsostacyIso means equal the mechanism whereby areas of the crust rise or subside until their mass is supported or compensated by the asthenosphere below The asthenosphere can do that because it movesPlate tectonicsThe theory describing the motions of continents and ocean basins and the processes that fracture and fuse them Plates move at the same rate that fingernails grow Earthquake is a resistance to movement which causes a sudden jerk Convection causes plates to move From a heat gradient caused from the core Divergence when plates move away from each other This causes convergence further down plates move below or above another plate 6 Major PlatesPacific plate Nazca plate South American plate African plate IndoAustralian plate Eurasian plate The minor plates are called platelets There are always plates present even during divergence During divergence material moves to fill the voidDynamic Equilibriumtells us that the rate of production of new plates is equal to the rate of destruction of the plates Processes on earth run by energy given by the sunLithospheric crust circles the entire globe They move aroundIf separation of plates is slow than there is vertical build up called midocean ridge If fast than there is not enough time to vertically build Only called midocean ridge if located in oceanDiagram Plates separate and fills up with water Eventually it builds up a new ocean Midocean ridge is created But spreading may stop if too much resistance so not necessarily becoming an ocean every time Spreading BoundariesOcean ridges occur because of rise of magma to form a mountain range Plate tectonics explainsShape of ocean basinsRelatively young age of oceanic crustAge distribution of oceanic crust oceanic crust constantly recycled The crust closer to the oceanic ridge is youngest and gets older going outTransform faultsGeomagnetic patternsMost magnetic at the oceanic ridgeFit of the continentsSimilarities between distant continentsDivergent BoundariesCharacteristic of seafloor spreading centresUpwelling material from the mantle forms new seafloor and lithospheric plates spread apartMostly occurs at midocean ridges but a few within continents themselvesConvergent BoundariesContinentaloceanicOceanicoceanic when 2 oceanic crusts are in contactContinentalcontinentalMelting of plate is equal to creation of new plate boundarySediment wedge is developed from sediment being scraped off of crust while it is submergingVolcanic chains are created on top of area that crust is melting because magma rises hot spots
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