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GG102 Final Exam Review .pdf

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Wednesday April 16 2014GG102 Final Exam Review Conceptual FrameworkGlobalization and the World System Chapter 1 Geography Matters Human Geography the study of the spatial organization of human activity and of peoples relationship with their environments Reveal how and why geographical relationships are important Aboutof Canadian adults can be considered geographically illiterate Places are dynamic which changing properties and fluid boundaries that are the product of the interplay of a wide variety of environmental and human factorssetting for daily life subjective Exert a strong influence for better or worse on peoples physical wellbeing their opportunities and their lifestyle choicesPlaces contribute to peoples collective memory and become powerful emotional and cultural symbols Layering of meaning reflects the way that places are socially constructedgiven different meanings by different groups for different people The site of innovation and change of resistance and conflictunique characteristics of place produce the preconditions for new modes of economic organization new cultural practices and a new lifestyleMost places are interdependent each filling specialized roles in complex farreaching and everchanging geographers ex Manhattan NY operates as a specialized global centre with business and educational needs but also relays on many other states for other things like food Are a dynamic phenomena as they are created by people responding to the opportunities and constraints presented by their environmentContinuous twoway process in which people create and modify places while being influences by the setting him which they liveGlobalization affecting importance of place cherished local identities faster information highway greater each of TNCs with labour and consumer markets and greater integration of government and institutions making people sensitive to localized cleavages of race ethnicity religion or other markers of identityThe Interdependence of Geographical Scales The study of human geography shows not only how global trends influence local outcomes but also how events in particular localities can come influence patterns and trends elsewhere World Regions large scale geographic divisions based on continental and physiographic settings that contain maor groupings of peoples with broadly similar cultural attributes constantly evolving as natural resources and technologies Europe Latin America and South Asia Je Jure Territories legally recognized below level of state provinces countries municipalities National States are seen as the most important geographic scale because they have the power to enact laws that regulate the flow of people goods money and informationSupranational Organizations collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic andor political in nature and that diminish to some extent individual state sovereignty in favour of the group interests of the membership EU NAFTA 1Wednesday April 16 2014Within most national states and all international regions are smaller functional regions constructed around specific resources and industries The community is loosely defined location of social interaction of personal relationships and daily routine all of which depend a great deal on the economic social and cultural attributes of local populations The home is an important geographic site insofar as it constitutes the physical setting for the structural dynamics of family and household Human geographers also look at the spatial relation of groups of people allowing for them to understand the interrelationships between nature culture and individual human agency in shaping places and regions TO Map stated that the holy city of Jersualem lay at the centre of the world and outwards from it radiated three continents Europe Africa and Asia separated by the waters of the Nile and MediterraneanProven false Results of Geographys Involvement 1Imperialism the extension of the power of a nation through direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories 2Ethnocentrism the attitude that a persons own race and culture are superior to those of others 3Masculinism the assumption that the world is and should be shaped mainly by men for men 4Environmental Determinism a doctrine that human activities are controlled by the environment Friedrich Ratzel following the logic of Charles Darwin Ecumene the total habitable area of a country Because it depends on the prevailing technology the available ecumene varies over time It is an important concept in Canadas case because the ecumene is so much smaller than the countries total area Globalization is a process and a condition that involves the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common process of economic environmental political and cultural changeEarly 1800searly global sourcing of wale oil for lamps Late 1800scolonialism and imperialism Entire 20th century phosphate as a global commodity PostWWI and again post WWIImandate system as continuation of colonialism 1980s onwardcorporate and finance globalization Builds on international division of labourproblems continues colonial commodity export dependencies of peripheral countries adds to wealth of core countries and results structural inequality leading to uneven development Structural Inequality looking at the world as a global village shows the ratio of people from each country in a sense that we are in a village of 100 peoplePerspectives1Hyperglobalist View open markets and free trade and investment across global markets allow more and more people to share in the prosperity of a growing world economy economic and political interdependence creates shared interest that help prevent conflict and foster support for common values increasing dependence on IMF and WTO 2Sceptical View argue that contemporary economic integration is actually much less significant than it was in the late 19th century when nearly all countries shared a common monetary system know as the gold standard regionalization because three main markets of Europe North American and East Asia control the world3Transformationalist View contemporary processes of globalization are historically unprecedented as governments and peoples across the globe confront the absence of any clear international affairs suggest 2Wednesday April 16 2014that we are all heading toward a world where places and regions will experience a wide range of internal changes at the same time that the strength of their connections with other parts of the world will increase heading toward increasing social stratification as some states are more interconnected than others Key Issues environmental issues health issues increasing trade and disease security issues attempted attacks on different nations and their important buildings Tools observation fieldwork lab experiments remote sensing and archival searches once the information is collected and data recorded written descriptions graphs tables etc can be producedRemote Sensing the collection of information about parts of earths surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible infrared and microwave sensor system Model often described as a theory or concept a model is best thought of as a simplification of reality designed to help generalize our understanding of a particular process or set of phenomena it can take the form of a diagram equation or simple verbal statement such as a law and may be used as a summary of past and present behaviour or to predict future eventsMaps a 2D representation of a part of the earths surface simplifies reality so we can comprehend it betterfastermore thoroughly but all of this comes at a price of selection generalization standards and conventions Topographic Maps represent the form of earths surface and to show permanent features such as buildings highways fields boundaries and political boundaries Contour unusual device for representing the form of earths surface a line that connects points of equal elevation Thematic Map map designed to represent the spatial dimensions of particular conditions processes or events uses proportional symbol circles squares spheres cubes etc Isopleth Map maps based on isoline lines connect points of equal value continuous phenomena whether maps Choropleth Map tonal shadings are graduated to reflect area variations in numbers frequencies or densities data to relate to specific areas derived values density greek colouring book map Dot Map raw values discrete countable phenomena exact locations Cartography the art and science of map making goals description analysis explanation and prediction Areal Units spatial units of measurement such as a city block or province used for recording stats Map Scale is the ratio between linear distance on a map and linear distance on earths surface 1Representative Fraction 1100 or ratio 1100 2Small Scale small representative fraction covering large part of earths surface on printed page 3Large Scale based on larger representative fraction covering small part of earths surface on printed page Map Projections is a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographical coordinates of the features found on earths surface 1Conformal Projections projections which compass directions are rendered accurately 2EqualArea or Equivalent Projections projections that portray areas on earths surface in their true proportions 3Visualization a computerassisted representation of spatial data often involving 3D images and innovative perspectives that reveals spatial patterns and relationships more effectivelyFundamental Concepts of Geography 3
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