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Final Exam Notes Chapters 10-16

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Lesson Six Landslidesfrom this lesson you should be familiar with the different types of landslides and the controlsresisting and driving forcesAlso consider the geographic distributionin general US and CanadaBe familiar with ways of adjusting the landslide hazardengineering and other solutionsYou should also be familiar with the case studiesthese include the Philippines CaliforniaFor the readings make sure you look at the links related to the topics above as well as chapter 4pp 108 137 Lesson 6 Understanding the Causes y Difficult to determine the factor that led to failure Land Slide Processes y Type of landslides o FallMoves through air and lands at base of slopeDry process triggered by vibration human or natural wedging ice or vegetationRapid process hazard to those underneath o SlideMovement in contact with the underlying surfacealong a plane surfaceIdentified by y Character of surface of plane y Type of material rock sedimenty Water contenty Speed of movement Examples rockslide translational slide slump slipo FlowFlows are plastic or liquid movement in water or sometimes airMass breaks up and flows during movement Types include solifluction mudflow debris flow snow avalancheGeography of Risk y Occur mostly in western Canada Prediction and Warningy Conditions to be considered in prediction and warning of landslides o Slopes and seismic activities consider over steepened slopes enhanced by seismic activityo Geology and structure consider soluble rocks or those weakened by water bedding planeso Surface and buildup consider the water conditions and springs pools of standing watero Topographic and vegetation features consider scarps old landslides hummocky and young vegetationo Accelerated creep consider equipment embedded in slope vegetation stems and cracked road surfaces Prevention and Mitigation y In general the prevention of landslide is mainly through engineering responses o Techniques to control the movement of land downslope oro Reduce the moisture levels in the slope system y Structural controls o Slope drainage introduce interceptor drains capture runoff and transport away from slope repair perforated pipes and wells by draining water by gravity or pumping it outo Slope reduction grade steep slopes reduce instability by introducing benches and terraces removing falling materialo Engineering to resist mass movement armour the surface to reduce erosion with concrete crushed rocks bolts o Engineering to mitigate damages use netting or wire fences ditches or berms rock sheds or tunnelsTerms y Colluvium the broken rock deposited by mass movement processes including creep and landslidesy Creep slow downslope movement of soil because of gravityy Mass wasting a term for any type of downslope movement of rock or sedimenty Talus fragments of rock that have fallen form a cliff and accumulated at its base
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