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Midterm 1 Review and Definitions.docx

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Margaret Walton- Roberts

Definitions Culture - Shared values, a “way of life” - Conventions of a group - Hierarchical values - Cultivation - Culture is everything Hegemony - A cultural form of control, a set of agreements / principles that dominate a group of people. A constructed opinion that dominates beliefs. People thinking it is the right way to live (example under fascism). Landscape - A land shape, in which the process of shaping is by no means thought of as simply physical. An area made up of distinct association of forms, both physical and cultural. - Are usually constructed with particular values in mind - Produced through numerous factors - It is an idea about a particular area - Landscape is best understood as a kind of produced, lived, and represented space constructed out of the struggles, compromises, and temporarily settled relations of competing and cooperating social actors. Semiotics - The production and communication of cultural meanings through signs Discourse - Discourse is a formalized way of thinking about a topic that is established through language, texts and symbols; communicates the social boundary that defines what can be said about a specific topic. - Discourse is both representation and regulation; it regulates what is possible through what is possible to represent. Colonialism - Political and legal domination by a state over a separate region. Involves formal establishment and maintenance of rule by a sovereign power over a foreign population through the establishment of settlements. Imperialism - The extension of the sphere of influence of a nation through the direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories. Empire - A geographically extensive group of states under the political rule of one specific sovereign ruler (often a single-ruler system, like a monarchy or emperor, but not always). Liberalism - A political philosophy born of the Enlightenment which holds the ultimate aim of government to be the protection of (equal) individual rights for citizens. o Ownership of property o Representation in government o Freedom of movement o Greater equality for citizens Orientalism - Orientalism is a manner of regularized writing, vision and study that portends to portray the Orient as a single unified entity - From this perspective, the Orient is a uniform place that crosses countless cultural and national boundaries. It is unified by is distance and difference from the West o The Orient is weak, feminized, irrational
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