- Shared values, a “way of life”
- Conventions of a group
- Hierarchical values
- Culture is everything
- A cultural form of control, a set of agreements / principles that dominate a group of people. A
constructed opinion that dominates beliefs. People thinking it is the right way to live (example
- A land shape, in which the process of shaping is by no means thought of as simply physical. An
area made up of distinct association of forms, both physical and cultural.
- Are usually constructed with particular values in mind
- Produced through numerous factors
- It is an idea about a particular area
- Landscape is best understood as a kind of produced, lived, and represented space constructed
out of the struggles, compromises, and temporarily settled relations of competing and
cooperating social actors.
- The production and communication of cultural meanings through signs
- Discourse is a formalized way of thinking about a topic that is established through language,
texts and symbols; communicates the social boundary that defines what can be said about a
- Discourse is both representation and regulation; it regulates what is possible through what is
possible to represent. Colonialism
- Political and legal domination by a state over a separate region. Involves formal
establishment and maintenance of rule by a sovereign power over a foreign population
through the establishment of settlements.
- The extension of the sphere of influence of a nation through the direct or indirect control of
the economic and political life of other territories.
- A geographically extensive group of states under the political rule of one specific sovereign ruler
(often a single-ruler system, like a monarchy or emperor, but not always).
- A political philosophy born of the Enlightenment which holds the ultimate aim of government
to be the protection of (equal) individual rights for citizens.
o Ownership of property
o Representation in government
o Freedom of movement
o Greater equality for citizens
- Orientalism is a manner of regularized writing, vision and study that portends to portray the
Orient as a single unified entity
- From this perspective, the Orient is a uniform place that crosses countless cultural and
national boundaries. It is unified by is distance and difference from the West
o The Orient is weak, feminized, irrational