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Tourism Final Review.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Barbara Carmichael

Introduction: Chapter 1 Definition of Tourism o Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. (Goeldner and Ritchie,2003, p.6) o Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes (WTO) o League of Nations (1937) o “any person visiting a place for at least 24 hours” (tourist) o “any person visiting a place for less than 24 hours” (excursionist) o Tourist: person travelling outside their usual environment for less than a specified period of time whos main purpose is to travel o Domestic tourism: tourist travelling within a country o International tourism: tourist leaving their country Visitor o A “visitor” is defined as those persons who travels to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. Tourism Industry o Seven Sectors o Accommodation o Transportation o Restaurant o Establishments providing facilities for o Recreation and entertainment o Manufacturers of handicrafts and souvenirs o Travel agents and tour operators o Government agencies concerned with o Tourism o Gee, Makins, Chow o Direct Providers o Support Agencies  Travel agents  Tour operators o Tourism Development  Planning  Government  Universities Geographic Perspectives o Tourism with its focus on traveling and transfer of people and goods and services through space and time is essentially a geographical phenomenon. o Geographers are interested in explanations, predictions and synthesis of spatial patterns and processes within the natural and cultural landscape. o Major Authors o Pearce (1979) o Mitchell (1987) o Mitchell and Murphy (1991) o Scale o Global, international, regional, and local patterns and interactions. o Space o Spatial distribution of tourism phenomenon, hierarchy of attractions, patterns of demand and associated travel movements, distance effects. o Impacts o Planning o Tourism as an agent for change o Modelling trends and impacts Clawson 5-phase model-recreation experience Campbell’s Model-Recreational and Vacation Travel Geographical patterns, processes, and models o Determining geographic patterns and processes o Tourism Statistics – Who calculates tourism statistics? o What do we measure?  Statistics of volume  Tourist characteristics  Expenditure statistics o Determining geographic patterns and processes o Critical discussion of tourism statistics o Dependence on quality of data o Country to country variation o Tourist arrival statistic issues o Domestic tourism o Variables (questionnaire data) o Geographic Patterns o Based on flows between generating and receiving countries o Major tourist flows:  Features of tourist movement  Macro Regionalisation  European dominance  Polarisation o Circuit tourism: o International tourism may not be generating region and destination… it can involve a circuit or multi destination travel  So circuit tourism is a trip involving two or more countries  This is also based on geographic variables – it is less common for destinations like the Caribbean (where people go and stay for the week, they don’t travel around) and more common for Europe, where we can go country to country fairly easily  Its complicated to measure because stop overs are used, people stay one or two nights at a destination on their way to another one (Hong Kong used a lot for this) 1. Intra-national travel patterns o Research in international travel has been largely based on the analysis of flows between sets of generating and receiving countries. a. Two sets of movement: as tourists leave generating country and as tourists move within a receiving country i. Little recognition that international movement are complemented by 2 sets of intra national movements, one in generating country  As tourist leave home to go to the port of departure ii. Receiving country  Tourists move to a destination or visit a variety of destinations in the country b. Difficult to measure i. Flow between countries rather than within countries is simply easier to measure (there are specific ports set up – harder to measure domestic travel) c. Limited study – mostly through questionnaires i. Asking visitors what attractions or sites they have visited or intend to visit. This approach can shed some light on the most frequented attractions but rarely provides details of the combination or sequence of visits, or the amount of time spent at each site. Typology’s: Chapter 4 o Cohen 1. Drifters o Does not seek any contact with other tourists – preferring to live with host family 2. Explorers o arranges travel independently and wishes to experience social/cultural lifestyle 3. Individual mass tourist o wants to also break away from the norm and see other sights not covered in organized mass tourist 4. Organized mass tourist o highly organized holiday package “environmental bubble” o Plog 1. 1972 2. 1991 1: 2: o Travel Characteristics o Psychocentrics  Prefer the familiar in travel destinations  Like commonplace activities at travel destinations  Prefer sun ‘n’ fun spots, including comfortable relaxation  Low activity level  Prefer destinations they can drive to  Prefer familiar atmosphere (hamburger stands, etc)  Complete tour package with heavy scheduling of activities o Allocentrics  Prefer non-touristy areas  Enjoy sense of discovery and delight in new experiences before others have visited the area  Prefer novel and different destinations  High activity level  Prefer flying to destinations  Enjoy meeting and dealing with people from a strange and foreign culture  Tour arrangements should be basic (transportation and hotels) o Plogs Tourist Types Market Segments o Business traveler-trip purpose o Pleasure Traveler-trip purpose o Demographics-age, income, education o Psychographics- personality, values,motivations, lifestyles Ontario Market Segments o2000 TAMS survey oSegmented travelers on basis of age, activities and motivations and lifestyles o Age/Family lifestyle  Young adults: backpackers/night life resorts  Family: Disney  Retired: Passive holidays o Gender  Men: more likely to travel alone o Disability  Lack of knowledge, social skills, health related barriers, physical barriers Motivations Influences of Travel Choices oAttitudes o Allport “ A mental state of readiness, organised through experience, exerting a directive influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related’ o Attitudes-affects beliefs and knowledge about products oPerceptions o How individuals select and organize the mass of information they are exposed to o Selective, may be biased and stereotyped o Subjective rather than objective oMotivations o What causes an individual to act or behave in a certain way- eg. why do we travel? And what needs are we satisfying by travelling?  Logical needs and desires oImages o Tourist image –the sum of the beliefs that a tourist has about a place o Subjective, influenced by perceptions, tourist knowledge and media representations Consumer decision making Cooper et al. 1999 oEnergisers: motivations- lead a tourist to decide to go on vacation, visit an attraction oEffectors: how ideas are developed about a place oRoles and the decision making process oDeterminants of demand oGilbert 1991 framework Travel Motivation oGrey (1970) o Push: propel a desire to travel o Pull: factors that influence which destination is selected o Crompton 1. Escape from a perceived mundane environment 2. Exploration and evaluation of self 3. Relaxation 4. Prestige 5. Regression (less constrained behaviour) 6. Enhancement of kinship relationship 7. Facilitation of social interaction oLeiper (1984) “Recreation” o Rest o Relaxation o Entertainment oStimulus Seeking Continuum o McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995) 1. Physical Motivators 2. Cultural Motivators 3. Interpersonal Motivators 4. Status and Prestige Motivators “ego needs” o Maslow o 1. Physiological [lower]  Hunger, sex, activity, rest o 2. Safety  Freedom, secure o 3.Belonging and Love  Giving and receiving love/affection o 4.Esteem  Self-confidence, self-esteem o 5. Self –actualization-personal self fulfillment [higher]  Personal self-fulfilment o Iso Ahola (1982) Determinants of Demand o Lifestyle oIncome and employment oPaid vacation oEducation and mobility oRace and gender o Lifecycle oBachelor oNewly wed oFull nest 1,11,111,1,11 oSolitary survivor in the labour force oSolitary survivor, retired Guest Lecture: Dr. Murphy: Community Networking for Local Tourism Entrepreneurs Entrepreneur: fulfilling a business opportunity for self and community benefit Local Tourism Market: realistic appraisal of its resources and competitive position o Rural tourism—small town tourism normally doesn't work because there isn’t anything special/distinctive about your building o Will something in your town bring people to want to go to visit/travel Host Community: work within “ecomuseum” concept retaining the best past (heritage/character), developing the present (existing socio-economic structure) with an eye of the future (aspirations) o Not very common anymore o Try to encourage future developments/directions o Ex. Duncan (Vancouver Island)  Little museums in little communities (past), harvest trees and put up information boards on clear-cutting-pot ash- refarm trees so you can see different stages (present) Selected Business Issues 1. Opportunity recognition 2. Leadership 3. Seasonality 4. Human resource development 5. Finance 6. Sustainability 1. Opportunity Recognition o Billy Butlin’s Holiday Camps o Butlin original holiday camps based on Eaton’s staff summer camps o Summer camps were for staff to get outdoors, fun, exercise etc.  Encouraged interation/network  Started in Canada, took it to the UK o Environmental Scanning  Internal Environment  Task Environment  Competitors, communities, government  Societal Environment  Economic, political, socio-cultural o Externable health and social proposal factors which can influence the future development of a business (international events, national socio-econ trents, community interests) 1. Location analysis- rail/road links between urban areas and cost a. Midlands and Skegness (1936) b. London and Clacton (1938) 2. Societal trends – 1938 “legislation of week’s paid vacation” o Internat and Nat Scale = WW2  dark days don’t last forever, so plan for the future 2. SEASONALITY: o High and low points in season o A common problem in most tourist fdestinations is the curse o Charles mc diarmid and family own a waterfront property of south Tofino and have turned a problem into an advantage o New wickaninnish Inn – built in 1996 on a rocky promontory to embrace winter storms o Many copycats and new local terminology of “storm season” o Other people in area want to do the same thing 3. H/R: Beechworth is a country town of 3000 people, hours from anywhere (3 hours) o People drive that far to go to a bakery o Major attraction within the town is its bakery o Tom O’Toole has made it so by designing his business for tourists as well as local residents o Operating a bakery 7 days a week is a big job, with shift work hours and requiring multiple skills 4. Sustainability o Resorts are remarkably resilient/sustainable over the centuries, one key reason is their adaptability The Evolution of Tourism: Chapter 2 Introduction o Evolution of tourism generally studied from a Western-European perspective th o Late 20 C. – Saw a rise of interest in tourism Ancient World o Sumerians (Babylonians) development of money by Sumerians and development of trade beginning about 4000BC o Egyptians – organized cruises, pyramids were tourist sties-- graffiti, acquired souvenirs, drank wine o Greeks – Olympic games, resorts o Romans – roads used roads to visit temples. Pyramids, monuments, Greece, Olympic games, baths, seaside resorts, used guidebooks, bought souvenirs Beginnings of Tourism: Road Travel o Early Roads o Minoan roads on island of Crete (2000-1500BC) o Roman Roads o Started building roads around 150 BC o Roman Empire o Romans sought to escape the cities in summer o Moved to seaside and hillside villas o Coliseum in Rome – 300 thousand capacity o Souvenirs, catering, popular mass culture o Tourism in Ancient Greece o Popular with Romans Olympic Games – 776BC, seaside resorts, theatrical productions  Seaside resort  Upper class went to resorts in the summer to get away from Rome – pleasure/relaxation o Left graffiti o Pausanias (a Greek) wrote a guidebook (160-180AD) o Visiting sanctuaries  Included temples, statues, walks etc. in beautiful setting  Especially for the god Asclepius  A Greek hero who later become the Greek god of medicine and healing o Asia o Silk Road  Route through which silk was traded from China through Persia to the Mediterranean  Also traded precious stones, metals, furs, food and textiles th  Marco Polo’s account in 13 century Beginnings of tourism o Crusades expeditions between 1095-1291 o Wars to regain control of the holy land from Muslims o Crusaders returned home with stories and ideas about Europe—generated interest in travel The Pilgrimage-- backpackers o 500 AD – Fall of Roman Empire o Roads fall into disrepair o Travel becomes dangerous and difficult  Travel was not associated with pleasure at this time o Undertaken largely on foot o Travel undertaken for purposes of trade/religion only o Rise of pilgrimages Medieval Travel o Pilgrimages to see landmarks o Took pieces as souvenirs o Local sold small flasks inscribed with the name of the place Early Roots of Commercialism o Drinking (taverns) o Gambling (wagers on rough sports and tavern games) o Prostitution o Circuses, travelling entertainers, fairgrounds Rise of Mass Domestic Tourism o Money and time-rich in society possessed the resources required for traveling outside their own area Grand Tour o 16/17 century o Travel as an essential part of a young mans education o Male phenomena – often travelling with his tutor o Aristocratic young men in the presence of their tutors o Cultural and political education on a prescribed route o To do with their school development o France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Netherlands o 6 months or less o Some artists were commissioned by these male travelers to pant portraits of various “cultured” tourist attractions o Many paintings of famous sites (Venice, Paris, Rome) and rural landscapes (river banks, rolling hills) o To remind themselves of their experiences o Souvenir o Males heading off checklist o Sod/pistols o Linen overall to put over clothes at night o Paper/pen to do sketches o Lice proof jacket o Handkerchiefs o Guidebook/maps o Strong shirts o Waterproof bug proof o Passport o Medicines The Grand Tour Clawson’s 5 phase Model o Recollection – anticipation – experience o Anticipation: includes o Location and activity decision, based on perceptions, motivations and indluences o Experience: onsite adjustments, interactions with locals, ecological capacity Stage 1: anticipation Travelling motivations o 17 century grand tourist: prestige, facilitation of social interaction, exploration and evaluation of self st o Top 5 reasons cited by 21 century traveling youth o Exploration of other cultures, experience excitement, increase knowledge, relax mentally, have good time with friends Stage 2: Planning the trip o Trips were planned more so by the elder of the youth, or someone employed by the elder, than by the youth himself o Literature which detailed accounts of experiences abroad acted as a form of early travel magazine o Thomas Nugnet was famous for the publication of early guide books, that would assist the youth while en route o Word of mouth was perhaps the most important source of information in the days of the Grand Tour o Travel magazines and tour guides remain important- not the most important (37% o Internet (71%) o Word of mouth (70%) Stage 3: Travel to sit o Travel presented a challenge to participants in the Grand Tour o Travel to the mainland from England was conducted by boat causing seasickness o On land- travel form of travel was horse drawn carriage o Today:  No real defined pattern  Everyone comes from somewhere different  Eurail has made travel through Europe affordable and convenient  Travel by air, ferry, underground Stage 4: Visiting destination o Began crossing of English channel from Britain into France o France travelers toured through Swiss Alps and moved on to Italy o Some travellers went to Germany but terrible road conditions prevented this Stage 5: Activities o Prudent spenders o Visit historically and cultural attractions Conclusions/Recollections o Similarities o Reflections of experience o Differences o Social classes o Motivations: internal vs external o Ease of travel o Information sources Beginnings of Modern Tourism o Many features similar to tourism today o Travel habits o Souvenirs o Accommodations o Events/attractions o Food o Unruly behaviour o Accommodations o Some stayed in hostels, monasteries, etc. o Government officials may have stayed in temples or government buildings o Travelers would sleep in the open and feed themselves as best they could o Events o Cities put on elaborate religious and civic festivals public processions o Food o Contrasts between British (solid and substantial) and French (insubstantial and lacking in meat) food o Written accounts include criticisms of other countries foods but also surprised comments on good food o Complaints that familiar food was unavailable and that they could not recognize what they were eating o Unruly Behaviour o British tourists were notorious for drinking heavily o Sexual behaviour caused great concerns o Impacts of tourists on local population Beginning of Tourism? o Uncertain as to what/when is considered the beginning o Travel began with explorations, trade, pilgrimages, Grand tour o Spas and resorts were some of the first tourist attractions o Traveler activity began looking a lot like modern tourism with events, accommodations, food and souvenirs o Travelers began impacting destinations and demanding services Tourism Destination Development Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC):  The level of human activity an area can accommodate without the area deteriorating, the resident community being adversely affected on the quality of visitors experience declining  Types of Carrying Capacity o Biological/Environmental CC o Physical CC  Space requirements for activity o Psychological Carrying Capacity  Quality of visitor experience/visitor attitudes/behaviour of tourists  Simple concept – difficult to implement  Dynamic nature of ecosystems makes it difficult to calculate  It can be increased/decreased by management actions or human use Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC)  4 components o Specifies acceptable and achievable conditions o Analyzes existing conditions and acceptable change o Identifies management actions to achieve desired conditions o Monitors and evaluates management effectiveness Tourism Life Cycle Models  Need to understand how resorts evolve over time and the role that carrying capacity plays in their evolution  Tourist areas are dynamic why do they change/what changes? o Change in destination needs/preferences  Process described by Christaller (1964)  Plog suggested that resorts move in the direction of their own demise carry the seeds of their own destruction ***  essay question Butlers Tourist Area Life Cycle Model 1. Exploration  Few adventurous
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