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GS 101 Final Exam Review

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Global Studies
Timothy Clark

Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 Global Studies 101 Final Exam Review Readings For Final Exam Orend Environment The Tragedy of the Commons - When things are owner in common or are un-owned, the result tends to be a decline in both the quality and quantity of the thing. - When there is no one specifically to care for, and to pay the price for the decline of an asset, that asset tends to fall apart or get completely used up. - Major example of this would be the pacific garbage patch in the middle of the ocean, this is in neutral ocean territory and therefore is owned by nobody and the responsibility to clean this up falls on nobody as well. Oil OPEC - Leading members of OPEC include Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Libya, Algeria, and Qatar. - Was founded by Arab states of the Persian Gulf region Oil Crisis - This was started by OPEC for mainly two reasons o First, to increase the price of oil, thus generating more money for themselves o Second, to punish the west – especially the US – for their ongoing support of Israel - The Oil Crisis ended for several reasons o First, the West increased other sources of energy, notably nuclear o The crisis also forced Western countries to devise and introduce measures to conserve oil o OPEC (especially Saudi Arabia) decided – of its own accord – to relax the price of oil, realizing that it was in its own long-term interest not to turn the West completely off oil, but rather, to keep it coming back for more 1 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 Easy vs. Difficult Oil - Easy Oil o Is oil that is readily available, cheap to extract and purify, and ready to go - Difficult Oil o Is oil that is remotely located (e.g. Offshore), expensive to bring out, laborious to purify, and not at all ready to go, it needs to be processed ** Oil and Gas, which together account for nearly 90% of current world energy consumption** Peak Oil Theory - Is based on speculation about when oil production will reach its peak (or maximum output), beyond which there will be less and less oil to extract, yet more and more demand for it (owing to population growth and industrialization) Climate Change Kyoto Protocol (1997) - This international treaty stands as a failure, much to the lament of environmentalists - There is a very sharp North-South split on the issue. Developing nations in the Global South – especially India, China, and numerous African countries – want to use cheap fossil fuels to industrialize and grow their economies. - OPEC countries – obviously – want to keep selling oil. Only societies that have already become industrialized – especially Europe – seem committed to cutting greenhouse gas emissions and reducing their dependency on oil and coal Precautionary Principle - Stipulates that if you’re unsure of whether a practise is safe – or if you think it might be dangerous or polluting – then, as a matter of prudence, you ought not to continue it. - Thus, even if we are unsure about the effect of carbon emissions on Earth’s temperature, we should cut back on burning fossil fuels in case this is contributing significantly to global warming Optimism vs. Pessimism Optimism - The Montreal Potocol sets guidelines for restricting and then eliminating the use of BFC’s in the developing world, CFC’s stopped being made in 1996, and this is almost true today for the developing world too 2 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 - We have the reasons, the laws, the organizations, and the technology to develop a truly sustainable society; it’s just a matter of finding the money, ingenuity, and political will to bring it into being. This will be a difficult and ongoing-yet totally achievable-process. Pessimism - Trophy laws – laws passé for reasons of public display – that remain unenforced - People only care about the environment when their lives are in order and are financially set. In other words, it goes up when the economy goes up and it goes down when a recession hits people prefer economic growth over environmental protection - Pessimists fear that it simply can’t be done, and that in the future, we will be confronted with a long list ferocious difficulties, including a skyrocketing population, global warming, peak oil, stagflation, pollution, species extinction, resources scarcities (especially food and water) - and the dire miser and violent conflict that go with these Human Rights Realizing Human Rights Human rights began as a moral idea, crafted by ethical activists, thinkers, an social reformers who wanted to improve the way people treat each other and how they are treated by government. Legal right - Is a right that has been codified: this means it has been written into the law, and there exists a concrete remedy (such as a fine) for cases in which it is violated o For example, the rights of slave owning families in pre-Civil war America, or the rights of white people during South Africa’s Apartheid era, when whites were systematically separated from non-white people, with the latter, majority group being treated in a clearly inferior and discriminatory way Trophy Lawn - Is a law that has been written and passed but does not get enforced and does not reflect the reality on the ground; it has been created essentially for show o An example is the constitution of the Soviet Union, drafted during the Cold War. It is a document that aims to portray the USSR as a blissful utopia, not the bleak military dictatorship it actually was 3 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 Generally speaking, we as individuals are all Duty-bound 1. Not to violate another person’s rights ourselves; and 2. To support the formation and maintenance of those social institutions needed to minimize the chance of rights violation and to maximize the chance of right=holders having secure possession of the objects of their rights. The Basic Structure - The mode of economic organization - The mode of political organization - The mode of legal organization - The mode of deploying armed force - The mode of delivering basic social services - The mode of family association permitted and encouraged Rights Violation - Individuals directly violate human rights when they take away the object of another person’s human rights (e.g. by stealing) - they indirectly violate human rights when they fail to do their part to shape the basic structure appropriately (e.g. by evading taxes) - An International Violation occurs when an institution can, but chooses not to, respect human rights o Like the government of Nazi Germany. From human rights point of view, these governments are not legitimate and are in no position to complain when their people rise to resist them - An Unintentional Violation occurs when an institution wants to but cannot, respect the human rights of its citizens, such as when it lacks the resources to satisfy the people’s rights o Sub-Saharan Africa, these countries need help to fix their institutions in order to create and put in place rights-respecting resources. They need assistance rather then resistance 4 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 International Human Rights Law First-generation Rights Otherwise known as civil and political rights, include the following: - The rights to life or security - The right to hold private property - The right to freedom - The right to political participation - The right to recognition as a person before they law - The right not to suffer unfair discrimination - The right to basic “due process” protections and entitlements, in the event one is arrested and charged with a crime These were the earliest rights ever to be claimed, dating back well before the Holocaust. They were claimed by those who fought in the American and French revolutions, and even before then, in England 1215, they were written into the Magna Carta (literally, “great Charter”), commonly agreed to be the world’s first rights document. Second-generation Rights Are also known as socio-economic and cultural rights, they began to be claimed during the industrial revolution, starting around 1750. They include: - The right to material subsistence (or at least the guarantee of a welfare income sufficient to purchase material substances) - The right to basic education (i.e. primary and secondary school education) - The right to basic healthcare and public health measures (like inoculations) - The right to form a union - The right to basic safety standards on the job - The right to more robust forms of equality beyond non-discrimination These second-generation rights are completely in line with the development of the modern welfare state, as described in chapter 3 Third-generation Rights Are not generally known by any other term and are harder to define, as a group, they lack the internal coherence of the first and second generation rights 5 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 - The right to clean air and drinkable water - The right to environmental protections more broadly (like the creation of conservation areas) - The right to even “thicker” forms of socio-economic equality, like affirmative action hiring programs, with particular stresses on gender equality - The right of minority groups to cultural and linguistic funding and protection, to save and enhance their culture for future generations One of the most interesting and important third-generation rights is the so-called right to democracy, claimed especially by those in the Global South who are sick of corrupt, incompetent, and authoritarian regimes. Global Human Rights Treaties Most influential pieces if international human rights law are the UDHR and the two covenants, the ICCPR and the ICESCR. Some of the more high-profitable global ones include: - The convention on the rights of the child (CRC) this is actually the most widely ratified human rights document in the world - The convention on the elimination of all gotms of discrimination against women (CEDAW) - The convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide (CPPCG) - The convention on the elimination of all forms of radical discrimination (CEFORD) - Various treaties relating to the rights of indigenous or native peoples, refugees, the physically and mentally challenged, and prisoners Global Human Rights Institutions - Court of Justice (ICJ) We saw that only government can take each other to the world court, and they must both volunteer. Governments that violate human rights probably aren’t going to be eager to do that. Moreover, the ICJ cannot enforce any decision: the loosing country must voluntarily comply. That’s not real enforcement Regional Human Rights treaties and Institutions - The African (or Banjul) charter on Human and people’s Rights - The inter-American convention on Human Rights - The European social charter - The Cairo declaration on Human Rights in Islam 6 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 - The Charter of Paris for a New Europe - The Helsinki Final Act (for improving relations between former Eastern bloc communist countries and the West) - The Asian Human Rights Charter, which is the most recent of this set **Note how each of the world’s major regions has its own regional human rights document** - If you believe that your Human Rights have been violated, you must first launch lawsuits within your own country’s court system, and loose them all (both trials and appeals), before an international court will hear your case. - The one important exception to this system is Europe, which easily has the worlds most advanced and effective regional human rights systems, with dozens of treaties and in effective, active court that has shown itself willing to make bold decisions and enforce them as well. Other Tools for Human Rights - During the Cold War, the United States tried to do something similar by bestowing “Most favoured Nation” (MFM) trading status on certain countries – offering them economic advantages in exchange for improving their own human rights records. Still in place, MFM has now become so widespread that is has lost some of its effectiveness in this regard Non-Government organizations (NGO’s) Amnesty International - Is the oldest and best known. Formed originally in 1961 to help lobby for the freedom of those jailed purely for their political beliefs, Amnesty International has since grown across the world, engaging in nearly all fields of human rights activism, from letter- writing and political lobbying to helping pay for defence lawyers and creating documentaries and other educational resources to highlight human rights future generations Human Rights Watch - Is also prominent. Founded in 1978, Human Rights Watch has focused more on political and legal side of human rights issues, and on recording and disseminating detailed accounts of rights violations, such as torture at the hands of prison guards. Both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have been resolutely neutral, concentrating not on supporting regimes or picking sides, but rather, on sticking carefully and 7 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 expertly to the facts and to the law, and on standing up for those individuals who have suffered from human rights violations Human Rights NGO’s and international NGO’s perform the following vital functions - They call public, media, and government attention to important issues, widening the agenda and the scope of concern - They raise issues that often focus on protecting the worlds least powerful, and most vulnerable people - NGO’s can sometimes help vulnerable people directly by pressuring their governments to act by providing funds and or expertise or intervening with medical help - NGO’s typically concentrate on single issues, which allows them to be the bolder, to develop more expertise in their areas of focus - NGO’s provide an educational function by conveying the sense, and sensibility, of their causes through articles, books, curricular consent, documentaries, internet and TV - NGO’s provide a means for well-meaning, rights-respecting governments to further the human rights because indirectly, should they be reluctant to tackle these issues - NGO’s both apply pressure to state governments and also alleviate it. They apply pressure when they push for positive change and action in connection with their agenda Women’s Human Rights - Is called the convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW, 1981) - Shockingly the US, alone among developing countries, has never ratified the treaty. In this, the United States joins such nations as Iran, Qatar, Somalia, and North and South Sudan Women’s rights benefit everyone 1. The first is a huge increase in infant survival and in the development and well-being of children. 2. The second benefit is clear and measurable improvements is some of the most important indicators of development in a society overall, like lover crime, greater social stability, higher literacy, better access to and quality of healthcare and even higher per capita income. 8 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 Development Aid vs. Development Aid - Is a short term relief, largely humanitarian in nature an taking the form of donations and gifts – whether cash or “in kind” (i.e. goods). - It is typically designed to help alleviate some sharp sudden crisis within a society - Consider, for example, the response of the international community to the crisis of mass starvation in Ethiopia, which sparked the famous “live aid” fundraising rock concerts that took place around the world - Other examples include: o Earthquake in Haiti (2010) o Flooding in Pakistan o Tsunamis in Thailand (2004) o Tsunamis in Japan (2011) - Short term, crisis-focused, and with a narrow goal of helping to alleviate the burdens of the society struggling with the event Development - Refers to a slower and longer-term effort, one intended not merely to help a country through a crisis, but to truly grow a nation into a richer, smarter, healthier, more stable and sophisticated society. One with fewer problems and a more successful and sustained social growth - To that extent, the timeframe for development is much longer, and the goal is broader and more ambitious than the goal of aid - And while development assistance might include gifts, it can also include loans (which have to be paid back), direct investments (which assume some return on the risk), or advice and expertise (i.e. services – as opposed to mere goods, such as blankets and medicines) Rival Concepts of Development Traditionally, and more narrowly, this has been done by referring to the country’s gross domestic product per person (or GDP per capita). This is a purely quantitative index of how much money (or income, or value) a society produces in a year, divided by that country’s population 9 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 Standard of Living - Is this quantitative measurement of income per person Quality of Life - Takes into account other aspects of an enjoyable life, such as subjective happiness and the attainment of certain objective goods and goals, like an education and a healthy body - We all know that money, while important, is not the only thing in life Distribution of Income - (i.e. how the overall wealth is shared within a society) and how that might affect our perception of how developed a society is As a result the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has constructed some-thing it calls the Human Development Index (HDI) this is designed to move beyond aggregate income to include other measures of quality of life in a given society such as o Life expectancy o Infant mortality o Rates of literacy and disease o Rates of education attainment o Distribution of income o Gender and minority equality o Self-reported satisfaction in life ** These are all in addition per capita GDP** - The drawback to using the Human Development Index is that it is more complex than using GDP, and it includes standards of development (for instance, income equality and educational attainment) that some believe to be more controversial and subjective than the straightforward monetary measure of wealth - That said development experts currently tend to view HDI as the dominant method for evaluating the comparative development of countries 10 Andrew Ferraro GS 101 April/9/2013 Sources of development Assistance Private sources - Include all non-governmental sources, and the big sub-distinction here is between for- profit, corporate development sources, on the one hand, and not-for-profit, charitable sources, on the other The most relevant form of for-profit corporate aid is what is called: Foreign direct investment (FDI) - Made by a multinational corporation (a for profit, private company that carries out business activities in more than one country - An example of an FDI by a multinational corporation would be the decision of a huge northern company, like IKEA or General Motors, to build a factory in a Southern country to manufacture goods for the global market The three waves of Development The First Wave: Top-Down, State-Centric Mega-Projects - It was the US that began modern development programs at the end of the Second World War. - On post-war reconstruction, the first determination effort to help poor, war torn societies become developed nations was the Marshall Plan, which provided reconstruction aid to western and central Europe; Japan also received reconstruction assistance, under a separate program. The Second Wave: Structural Adjustment Programs - Structural adjustment program (SAP) paradigm. The inspiration behind the SAP came from a shift in development thinking during this time - The new thinking was the recipient nations ought to “adjust the structures”
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