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Wilfrid Laurier University
Global Studies
Alex Latta

GS 201 Final Exam Study Guide25 hoursFriday December 13 2013830 am in the ACConcepts3 x 1030In this section you will be asked to define and explain the significance for the study of theory in global studies of three 3 of five 5 termsYour answer should be approximately 1 page double spacedState of nature Hypothetical device created by Locke oYou get SON by taking away government from a societySONcharacterized byoPerfect freedomIndividuals are free to act as they deem fitoEqualityIndividuals have reciprocal power and jurisdiction everyone has same power and same jurisdictionoLaw of natureIt obligates individuals to preserve themselves and others Requires us not to harm each otherWe are all a creation of godwe dont have the authority to take livesoEveryone executes the lawEveryone has to enforce the law when it is violated Punishment must not be guided by passion and must be proportionate The aims of punishment areo1 To restrain the offender from future violations of the lawo2 Deter othero3 Make up for damages suffered by the victim restitutionLocke SONsuperior to monarchy because in the state of nature everyone is equal and free while in a monarchy the king owns the entire landSON tends to lead toSOWoThe law isnt written but rather what someones reason tells them it often varies oTo avoid this state individuals quit SONDefects of SONoThe law of nature is not knownoThere is no common judgeoThere is no power to execute punishment These defects make the SON so inconveniencing oFree and equal people contract to have social order that will secure their rightsoThe contract is in two stages to form a society and then a government Significance creates and justifies inequalitiesalso explains how and why we came to have the governments that rule all people of this earth today Social contract Theory proposed by John Locke that individuals have willingly consented to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to authority of the state in exchange for the protection of their rightsIndividuals give up two natural rights oRight to preserve themselves and others oRight to execute the law Society receives the rights that are given up and this lead to the development of civil society and governmentoAimto protect the natural rights that people gave upoNatural rights become civil rightsThe government should be limited in its powers and removable by the people by force if necessary if it infringes on the liberties it is supposed to protect Significance during the time of the Enlightenment it got people addressing the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individualRousseau wrote Of the Social Contract Or principles of Political RightoThis book helped inspire political reforms and revolutions in Europe especially FranceoArgued against the idea that monarchs were divinely empowered to legislate and stated that only the people who are sovereign have that rightNegative liberty versus positive libertyNegative Freedom fromoconnected with classical liberalismowanted an anarchic form of government meaning no overarching government to intervene in the lives of individualsor no government at allofreedom from the stateoclassical liberals had a specific type of equality oeveryone technically has the same freedoms but doesnt take into account the fact that not everyone has the same opportunity to achieve those freedomseg economic freedom included the freedom to enjoy ones property How do those born without any property achieve the freedom of enjoying their propertyPositive Freedom toouse the state for social goodoconnected with reform liberalismoCreate government programs to help those disadvantaged education health benefits etcowanted more social equalityoTH Green philosopher who said that government action is not necessarily the enemy of freedom but can provide the basis for people to be free to develop their individualitySignificance this differentiation led to people realizing the laissezfaire classical liberal focus on negative liberties offered very little to disadvantaged sectors of societyoRise of the welfare stateAlienationRefers to a separation from a larger whole and is generally a negative state where the aim of social change is to reunite the parts with the wholeFor Marx the initial alienation of humanity was the separation of human beings from natureoTo overcome this alienation we had to dominate nature not return to itThe capitalist mode of production alienated the majority of humanity to the maximum degree possible4 ways that capitalism created alienation how the proletariat were alienatedo1 Alienating producers from their means of productionUsed to have their own land now landlessThis is how the capitalist class structure developedcreation of the proletariatAlienated workers from the products of their worko2 Alienating them from their own human potential
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