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GS302 Final: GS302 Final Exam Review

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Global Studies
John Abraham

GS302 Final Exam Review Lesson 8 1. Describe the role of the Army, Religion, and Cold War in shaping Pakistan’s history. Army  At least 3 major periods when military controls Pakistan’s government a. Ayyub Khan & Yahya Khan (until 1972) o 1950s program of development o Industrialization of Pakistan during this period b. Al Huqq (1978-88) o Leadership during the era that US is providing support for Afghan Mujahidin o Very influential on Pakistan’s foreign policy and security – alliance with the US c. Musharraf (1999-2008) o Kargil conflict o Significant because it’s a conflict between two nuclear rivals – real possibility of turning into a nuclear war  Also, democracy o During democratic dilemma, country looks for new sources of stability = army o Military is highly developed in 1947, powerful, stable o Army therefore becomes very influential Religion  Two Nations Theory – laying the basis for the creation of Pakistan  Helps to push for the division of India into India and Pakistan Cold War  Al Huqq  Influence of the US  Aid from the US flowing to Afghanistan through Pakistan during this period of 1978-88 2. Describe the political developments that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.  Democratic dilemma  Two Nations Theory – two Muslim majority regions of South Asia are on the east and west wings of the peninsula  When country is divided, it’s into India and East and West Pakistan  Contradictory o Country is now divided by the widest point of its strategic rival (many hundreds of miles) o Logistically difficult as it is o Differences between East and West Pakistan East Pakistan West Pakistan  Ethnically unified people  Ethnically and linguistically diverse  Mostly speak Bengali  More populous  How do you balance these two different parts of the country? o 1956 proposed under Kahn that both wings be represented equally in parliament o Angers Eastern people – democratically and by population, they should have greater representation o 1970 Legal Framework Order – changes back towards proportional representation  Awami League 1970s major political party in Bangladesh o Wins right to form a government in 1970, pisses off Pakistani People’s Party o This conflict leads to 1971 war 3. Describe the Two Nations Theory in its origins and development. In light of Ayesha Jalal’s argument, how much of a role do you think it played in the eventual event of partition?  Idea that the Muslim community in South Asia is a “nation within a nation” th o 19 century Amud Khan proposes that within the nation of South Asia you have another distinct Muslim nation Origins  Most Moghul elites were Muslim  1906 Bengal province is partitioned into India and Bangladesh  This separation reassures Muslim community that they will be able to exert some representation and influence in areas where they are the majority  Province is then reunified by the British – Muslims basically say never mind 1915  Jinnah and All-India Muslim League mobilize, trying to maintain influence within the political development  At this time, Indian National Congress is mobilizing for greater representation, reform within British Imperial Government  1916 Lanka Pact between Muslim League and Congress: o In any future independent India, there will always be guaranteed minimum representation for members of the Muslim community within levels of government Jalal’s Theory  Two Nations Theory = bargaining strategy of the Muslim League to ensure that they get proper representation in government  Partition actually happened because leaders of Congress called the Muslim League’s bluff o Congress figured that partition would help get rid of competition Opinion  Theory played an important role in partition – the theory’s been around for a long time, influenced the process of partition  But it was a bargaining chip – a way to get more power in government/parliament, and ended up getting an entirely new state Lecture 9 4. Compare and contrast the sources of conflict in Sri Lanka and Afghanistan in the 20 century. Sri Lanka  Sinhala Only Bill: Sinhalese to be the official language of Sri Lanka (despite Tamil group)  Donoughmore Commission 1927: o Universal franchise- women get to vote in Sri Lanka before some parts of Europe o Equal representation for all communities on the island o Cause of concern for the Sinhalese population o Where the initial lines of conflict are laid o Why Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) starts the resistance  Creation of political parties to represent the interests of Tamil population o Tamil United Liberation Front 1972 Afghanistan  20 century context begins with process of modernization as a result of 3 Anglo-Afghan war  1919 Afghanistan independence  Modernization emphasizes differences between urban and rural populations o Urban: modernized o Rural: traditional, unaffected by modernization  Dynasty succeeded by PM  After dynasty ends, socialist party (PDPA) takes over in 1978 – Czar Revolution o Aligns Afghanistan politically with Soviet Union o PDPA faced with pushback from rural groups, so PDPA approaches socialist Soviet Union asking for assistance o 1979 Soviet Union invades Afghanistan to provide aid for PDPA o During Cold War – terrorism results from post-Cold War situation Contrast  Afghanistan external conflict players  Sri Lanka internal conflict players 5. How have external powers influenced the course of conflict in Afghanistan OR Sri Lanka? Afghanistan  Cold War context – alliance with US (Soviet Union aiding Pakistan)  British also significant o Wanted to keep their position in India secure o Concerned that Soviet Union is moving into South Asia o Negotiate with Soviets the “Great Game”  Afghanistan as the buffer zone  Point at which both Soviets and British would stop  Truce between the two empires  Anglo-Afghan wars Sri Lanka  External power: Indian government  Role in Tamil civil war (1983-2009) o 1987 India becomes nervous – India’s south has Tamils, nationalist movement in Sri Lanka may incite nationalism in India o IPKF (Indian Peacekeeping Force) becomes involved in a bit of military action in Sri Lanka – one attempt to stabilize the situation Lecture 10 6. Compare and contrast the experience of democracy in India and Pakistan. Pakistan  Military plays an important role in providing stability for the country and in government  Between 1950 and 1960, PM changes 9 times o Shows the level of political instability o Role of the military in providing stability  Dilemma until 1971 o Trying to achieve proportional representation between 2 wings of the country o 1956 proposed equal representation o 1970 Legal Framework Order reviews this and makes representation proportional o This plays important role until 1971 wars India  Congress is dominant until Nehru’s death  Indira takes over, Congress becomes less popular  1975 India is challenged in court and banned – she declares state of emergency, effectively suspending India’s democracy  In 2 years she arrests most of her rivals  1977 loses elections – first time Congress isn’t in power – stays this way for two years Contrast  Pakistan has so little democracy because Jinnah dies very soon after independence (as opposed to India’s Nehru staying alive for more than 14 years after independence)  Most elites in Pakistan are migrants who do not have connections to the land – they need to achieve legitimacy  Pakistan relies mostly on bureaucracy and military (democratic dilemma) rather than on democracy like India 7. Discuss the politics of Mandal and Mandir. Mandal  Caste  Lower castes: SC (Scheduled Castes) & OBC (Other Backwards Castes)  Ambedkar led lower castes during independence movement  Pune Pact: o Between Ambedkar and Gandhi o Ambedkar wanted separate electorates, but he’ll let it go if Gandhi gives certain rights to lower
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