GS101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Malthusian Trap, Import Substitution Industrialization, Kyoto Protocol

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Global Studies
Course
GS101
Professor
GS 101 Final Review session
Environment
Market Based Solutions:
Carbon tax- eg. Ecofees
Cap-and-trade Carbon is a commodity. Government sets a limit on
industries to produce carbon. Either have to restrict or trade to make
sure they are within the limit. It’s a llimit or cap on the amount of
pollutant - limit or cap is sold to firms.
Net primary production How much energy a plant uses- how much
energy plant produces
National vs. Ecological Citizenship rights and responsibilities to those
within your state boundaries, ecological citizenship rights are
responsibilities to all species and humans in global ecosystem.
Biocentrism: nAll species with inherent value ecological citizenship
Anthropocentrism: Environment only for human use-other species only
valuable if they can be used for human benefit national citizenship
argument to protect the environment: protect the environment so
humans can continue to live on it, “what if” argument that we may lose
species that could be helpful to human lives.
Malthusian Trap: Standard of living cannot increase when population
grows exponentially due to technology, we have escaped the Malthusian
trap due to industrial revolution and tapping of alternative energy
sources, consequences of extracting these maytural resources (soil
mining, deforestation, climate change, over-fishing, species extinction)
Anthropocentric because humans allowing this harm to environment
because it is for human gain and needs (i.e increasing standard of living
at the expense of the environment)
Have we actually escaped it? Rich and poor getting richer so standards
of living ARE increasing eg. China, Latin American Countries
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No because “Asian Bias”-Asian Countries do not reflect the entire world-
still very poor conditions in many countries.
Global Food System
-Who benefits? Developed, Canada, US, MNCs, Green Imperialism- land
grabbing (rich countries kick off poor communities from their land to
produce goods on them- monocropping (producing one crop-takes
same nutrients out of soil,ultimately reduces yield potential,soil
mining,)
Dependency Theory- Unfair terms of trade boom bust cycles-primary
commodity dependence (developing countries produce one raw good,
developed countries manufacture and sell
Income effects: As wealth increases, manufactured goods purchased at
higher or same price while primary commodity price becomes cheaper
therefore periphery countries losing out
-Underdeveloped cheap land, cheap labor-cheap produce goods in
developing countries
-Overfishing and Meat Production: Unsustainable to have meat-based
diets, meat and fish not efficient means of feeding population use up
more energy and land, GHG, cows produce majority of methane
emissions, 50% of world’s grain fed to livestock
-Mercantilism similar system present during colonialism-
Environmental Optimism: Montreal Protocol- eliminate CFCs successful
treaty, countries paid Brazil to stop deforestation, Debt-for-nature
swap or carbon offsetting- TNCs social responsibility, NGOs-Greenpeace
Technological Treadmill: Increasing technological inputs yet still
problematic outcomes- since population increasing we never get
anywhere- environmental pessimism- failure because continuously
relying on fossil fuels or technology “technological utopianism”
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Environmental Pessimism: Greenwashing- TNC facades, Kyoto Protocol
(international failure because US didn’t ratify-hinder development,
China, India, Brazil exempt from strictest terms), Trophy laws
Development
Modernization Theory:
Truman’s 4 Point Speech- support UN decisions, reconstruct Europe,
protect against communism, use technology to develop underdeveloped
countries.
-Give money to rich people in developing countries because invest in
high skilled jobs which will further economic development
Rostows 5 stages of growth: 1. Traditional society. 2. Pre-conditions for
Take-off. 3.Take-off 4. Drive to Maturity 5.High mass consumption eg.
Canada
-Kuznets Curve- Pre-industrial societies start with low inequality and
low economic development, development requires inequality so money
goes into hands of elite (financers, investors) so it will ne invested back
in the economy vs. poor using money to buy primary needs, industrial
society: inequality decreases while economy increases since money
invested into the country.
Structuralism (Latin American Structuralism)
Raul Prebisch- primary commodity goods produced in developing
country and manufactured by developed country and sold back to
developing- primary commodity dependence
-Unfair Terms of Trade:
-Boom Bust Cycles: Countries depending on one export, if product price
decreases economy will bust OR boom when commodity market price is
high.
-Income Effects
-ISI (Import Substitution Industrialization)- produce own manufactured
good within country, cut imports with tariffs and taxes, build up
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Document Summary

Government sets a limit on industries to produce carbon. Either have to restrict or trade to make sure they are within the limit. It"s a llimit or cap on the amount of pollutant - limit or cap is sold to firms. Net primary production how much energy a plant uses- how much energy plant produces. National vs. ecological citizenship rights and responsibilities to those within your state boundaries, ecological citizenship rights are responsibilities to all species and humans in global ecosystem. Biocentrism: nall species with inherent value ecological citizenship. Anthropocentric because humans allowing this harm to environment because it is for human gain and needs (i. e increasing standard of living at the expense of the environment) Rich and poor getting richer so standards of living are increasing eg. china, latin american countries. No because asian bias -asian countries do not reflect the entire world- still very poor conditions in many countries.

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