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HI109 Study Guide - Final Guide: Paris Peace Conference, 1919, French Communist Party, Paul Von Hindenburg


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Robert Hanks
Study Guide

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HI 109, 2013
Identification Study Suggestions:
Social Darwinism: The belief that conflict between groups in society
lead to social progress as superior groups outcompete inferior ones
- Scientific ideas were corrupted by social theorists
- Made assumption that each nation was a different species
- "Survival of the fittest"
Liberalism: Principal concern in early 19th century was to protect the
rights of the individual against the demands of the state
- Advocated a constitution that limited the state’s authority; Bill
of Rights
- Believed that state interference in the economy endangered
individual liberty and private property;
strong advocates of laissez-faire
- Approved property requirements for voting and office holding
to prevent the uneducated and
unpropertied from fucking everything up
- Typical Liberals:
- Self-made, professional men (lawyer, doctor, etc.)
- Opposed both socialism and absolute monarchy
- Working class + monarchy should not have too
much power
- Thought the RCC was medieval and backwards
- Believed in nation self-determination; every nation
should have it’s own state
- Many supported imperialism
- Most assumed Europe was superior
- Challenges to Liberalism:
- Militant nationalism
- Nationalism = democracy, but got more militant
throughout the years
- After school, went off to military
- Social Darwinism
- *See above*
- Cultural pessimism: Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
- “‘Progress’ is merely a modern idea, that is, a false
- Attacked religion; “God is dead”

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- Christianity was a sign of decadence and weakness
- Attacked rationality, democracy, nationalism,
- Humans were stupid, corrupt and materialistic
- Old values were dead and new ones needed to come
into to play
- Called for a new race of supermen
- Supermen: Poets, philosophers, etc. who would
create new values to
create a society that was pure and
stronger, not decadent and corrupt
- Appealed to young idealists who were looking
for something better in life
- Ideas influenced fascism; impact on Hitler and
- Radical socialism
Fascism: Seek to unify nation through totalitarian state that promotes
mass mobilization of a community
- Hitler & Mussolini are two major fascist leaders
- Hitler, more than Mussolini, pushed to establish a
totalitarian state that controlled all
phases of political, social and cultural life
- Saw themselves as dedicated idealists engaged in a heroic
struggle to rescue their nations from
domestic and foreign enemies; aspired to reclaim lands lost by
their countries in WWI or acquire
lands denied by the Paris Peace Conference
- Shared a hatred of liberalism, democracy, and communism;
glorification of the party leader; a
commitment to aggressive nationalism
- When
- Movements arose in Italy, Germany and many other European
- Leaders cleverly utilized myths, rituals and pageantry to
mobilize and manipulate the masses
- The memory of WWI, the rise of fascism and the economic
distress accompanying the
Depression profoundly disoriented the European mind

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- Some, having lost faith in the core values of Western
civilization, turned their backs on it
- Glorified instinct, will and blood as true forces of life; attacked
ideals of reason, liberty and
- German fascism taught racial mythology that preached the
superiority of the German race and the
inferiority of others
- The rise of fascism was impacted by:
1. The fear of communism among the middle and upper
2. The disillusionment of WWI veterans and the mood of
violence bred by the war
3. The inability of democratic parliamentary governments to
cope with the problems that
burdened postwar Europe
Nazism: A form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism and
obedience to a strong leader
- The Dawes Plan (1924)
- Formulated to take Germany out of hyperinflation and return
economic stability after the
signing of the Treaty of Versailles
- Wall Street Crash (October 1929)
- Turning point of Nazi party
- International trade dropped 60%
- 6 million unemployed in Germany
- Half of Germany’s families required social assistance
- Who voted for the Nazis
- White collar middle class who feared becoming lower or working
- Small craftsmen competing against big businesses
- Protestants
- Workers outside of trade unions (agricultural workers)
- Professors and students
- Who didn’t support the Nazis
- People in big cities and industrial areas (Berlin)
- German Catholics
- Franz Von Papen
- Aristocrat
- Represented interests of big industry land owners
- Aristocrat gov’t was not popular; enlisted help of Nazi’s
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