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Languages & Literatures

LL201 EXAM German Units German Unit 1: Vienna Habsburg Dynasty 1273-1918  Rudolph I 1273-1291  Charles V 1519-1556  Maria Theresia 1740-1780  Francis Joseph I 1848-1916  Charles I 1916-1918 Rise and Decline  Napoleonic wars: the end of the Holy Roman Empire o King Francis II dissolved the empire at this time 1806  1866 Prussia and Italy at war with Austria  1867: Dual Monarchy (Austria-Hungary) Francis Joseph I  1871: William I becomes German Emperor  WWI (1918) end of the Habsburg Empire Franz Joseph I 1830-1916  Kaiser of Austria 1848-1916  Konig/ King of Bohemia 1848-1916  Konig of Hungary- Croatia 1867-1916 Language  Variety of languages spoken  Viennese german didn‟t sound the same  12 major languages  6 official languages: german, Hungarian. Czech. Italian. Polish, and serbo- croatian  5 major religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Greek Orthodox, Jadaism, and Islam  15-20 ethnic groups, some wanting distinction o Czech, Slovak, Hung, Italians Croats, Serbs etc From One Empire to Many Nations Austria, Croatia, Bosnia, Slovakia, Czech, Romania, Ukraine, Arthur Scnitzler  1862-1931  Physician, author, dramatist  Sexual moral/ social pathology Secession Movement  Golden Cabbage- building made by Olbrich  Egon Schilele and Oskar Kokoschka  Arts and crafts on equal footing with painting  Wiener Weksstattle o Making arts and crafts o Died with the economic crisis 1920 o Gustav Klimt  Painted portraits of woman, many didn‟t like  Designed dresses, free movement not life corsets and bodices  Helped to found the Secession  Eroticized women  Taboo subjects  ornamentation Egon Schiele  Got rid of secessionist aesthetics , built on it  Expresionist, show people torn between extremes  Eros and Death as themes  Showed his development through self portraits  No interest in nature, liked bodies, gave nature body Modernist Architecture  Otto Wagner  Made his buildings blend in with the rest of the city Art Nouveau= jugendstil German Unit 2: Bauhaus Weimar : European City of Culture 1999  Very small  German Reformation (16 c)h o Martin luther th  Golden Age (18/19 c) o Bacj- Goethe, schiller  Silver Age (19 ) o Music and evolutionary theory  Modern Age o Weimar Republic (constitution) drafted here to avoid the chaos of Berlin& Bauhaus (1919-1933) o Rise of Hitler, Third (1920‟s) forbidden to give lectures in berlin o Third Reich (1933-1945) o Concentration Camp Buchenwald o GDR, Easy Germany (1949-1990)  Bauhaus, famous for modernism  Started in Weimar 1919-1925  Moved to Dessau 1925-31 o Famous Bauhaus building was built here  Moved due to political difficuties o Berlin (1932-33) o Closed down by the Nazis  On average 150 students enrolled  Walter Gropius o Bauhaus Archive 1970‟s  Hannes Meyer  Ludwig van der Rohe o Professors at Bauhaus  Started with combining Grand Ducal School of Fine Arts of Saxony & School of Arts and Crafts  Went from municipally founded to private institute in Berlin  Modernist= „international style‟ o Form follows function (doesn‟t really work ) o Less is More *  Open Box: International Style o Gropius – show factory 1911  Mies van der Rohe o Pavilion o Lakeshore Drive, Chicago (1948) o Seagram NYC o TD center, Toronto  Deutscher Werkbund: Insdustry, Functionalism, Design 1907 o Peter Berens o Josef Hoffman, J.M Olbrich o Henry van de Velde, Walter Gropius, Mies va der Rohe o Bruno Taut o AEG, Daimler, Krupp (large companies)  Olbrisch (Vienna Secession Buliding (1897/8)  Adolf Loos (1870-1933) o Architect o Violent opponent of ornament o Influenced by Chicago school  High rise  Aesthetic purism  Simplicity, functionality o Along with Sucession, dislike historicism o The ornament disease o Separation of art and craft o Essay: Ornament and Crime  Evolution of culture= removal of ornament from objects of daily use (sign of spiritual strength ) o Art vs architecture o Loos House on … o Vienna: simplicity- clarity- order o Steiner House o Wittenstien influenced by loos  Art Nouveau in Weimar  Weissenhofsiedlung: Modernity and Mobilty o LE Corbusier house ( Daimler advertisement  1927 Weissenhof Estate o Torten housing estae, Dessau 1926-28 o Cheap housing needed after the war  Blood and Soil Architecture: German wood- regional styles  Berlin Bauhuas in an abanodoned telephone factory  Bauhaus/ Expressionist o Sommerfeld House o First large scale commission  Cathedral of Socialism o Bauhuas Manifesto 1919 o The ultimate aim of all creative activity is a building o Combine architecture, sculpture, and painting o Art cannot be taught  Joannes Itten 1888-1967 o Master 1919-1923 o Developed preliminary course o Taught form theory o Spread eastern beliefs and spirituality  German Expressionism o Abstract panting o 1911-14 o Klee, Kandinsky o Mondrian  Neo: Plasticism: UDch ge Stijl 1917  Laszlo Moholy- Nagy 1885-1946 o Painter o 1923-28 Buahaus o Metal workshop o Preliminary course  1923- First exhibition o Turning point- small institution= hit the market o Gained recognition o Itten resigns, Moholy- Nagy takes over  Oskar Schlemmer 1888-1943 o Designed the Bouhuas seal o Master o Triadic ballet o Life classes o Painter  Minimal use of materials  Dessau Institute of Design German Unit 3: The Berlin Wall  Wende o Change o Time of transition of E (bad) Germany from Socialist planned economy to capitalist free o Reunification with the W (good)  Berlin republic o June- Nov 1989  Demonstations in E and mass exodus to W though Hungary‟s border and German embassy in Prague o November 9, 1989  2 days earlier Poliburo resigns as govt  Opening of the wall o December 22, 1989  Opening of the Brandenburg gate o March 1990  First free election in E o July 1990  Currency, economic and social union o Oct 3, 1990  Official reunification  E becomes 5 states in the Federal Republic o 1991-1999  Berlin becomes the official capital of the united Germany o Leipzip population fluctuates between 1989-1998  530,000-440,000  Goodbye Lenin! o 2003 movie o  Built between 1961-1984  Over 154km long  Berlin and Germany divided o W Berlin- French, America, British o E Berlin- Soviet  Has several distinct phases o First August 13, 1961  Barbed wire  Test to see how people would react  Made up of multiple walls with breaks between o Guarded rivers and fences  Final version contained 2 parallel walls with deathstrip between  Brandenburg Gate ( 1961) o Had several crossing points/checkpoints o Checkpoint Charlies  How W crossed to E generally o Oberbaumbrucke (1982)  Maurer (wall)  Wand ( face of a wall)  People began putting art (only the W)  NO GRAFITTI ON THE EAST  Much more difficult to E to go to W  Death strip o Ppl cant jump over o Many historical buildings destroyed to make room  1971 Brandenburg Gate official opening  Drussion Customs Wall o The first wall to divide Berlin  1806 o Napoleon came after defeating Prussia  1814??  1871 Imperial Berlin o Second Reich  1918 Declaration of Republic  Massive population boom in 20-30‟s after the war  Iron Curtan metaphor o Rozanoz  Soviet Rape o Both sexual and political (E)  Berlin Blockade & Airlift o 1945  US containment o 1947-49  Economic union of W  Marshall plan and curreny reform o 1948-1949  The soviets close all routes to Berlin  3 routes used by allies to bring supplies to the WEST  Two German States 1949 o BRD/ FRG  Federal Republic of Germany  Capital: Bonn  Citizenship extended to the E unlike the GDR  May 23  Federal Parliamentary Republic  Socialist Market Economy  Communist Wall of Shame o DDR/GDR  German Democratic Republic  Capital: E Berlin  Oct 7  Socialist Communist  Anti fashist protection barrier  Berlin Crisis o 1958-1962  Devotls o June 17, 1953 E  Republikflucht o Main reason for the beginning of the end of the war o Mass exodus E W Spanish Unit 1 Antoni Gaudi  1862-1926  One of the most famous architects of Spain  Born in Catalonia, Strong Catalan identity  Father was a coppersmith which heavily influenced his work o Would watch his father work  Officially became an architect in 1878,  His mind was never restrained by conventional rules  Very religious catholic background Elementals  Light and shadow  Continuity and discontinuity  Concavity and convexity  Exterior and interior fusion (bring together)  Often he would design the interior as well as furniture Perspectives  Movements he was associated with o Aesthetic pluralism o Catalan art nouveau o Gothic o Revival o Expressionist o Naturalism o Surrealism o Organic form  Mythology, symbolism, and functionality Innovations  Medieval structures and organic shapes  Little used of straight lines, flows  Very compassionate towards the poor  Odd materials  odd shapes  related to nature Catalonia  capital is Barcelona  speak their own language  17 autonomous states of spain  Has its own specific culture  Brought into spain by king Aragon  Very multicultural  Gaudi was extreme in his identity, speaking to the King in the language  Disliked the centralism of madrird  Became independent in 1880 Art Nouveau  Gothic art  Beginning the 19 century  Started in London, moved then to Paris  Began during the catalan rebirth  Ended the catalan cultural decline Contemporaries  Lluis Domenechi Maonaner  Manvell Raspall I Mayal  First used in a magazine in 1884 L‟Avenc Castell del tres dragons  1887  Made of brick and steel  Decorated with ceramics  Moorish style Patrons  Eusebi Guell o Good friend as well  Supported the political strife of workers Casa Vicens 1883-1885  First major commission in Barcelona  Gothic revival  Exstensive use of straight lines  Tiles used supplied by the owner  Brick and ceramic tiles used on exterior  Inspired by Mudejar Arabic style  Christian art and Arabic ornamentation  Colour and life themes mixed with ornamentation  Nature destroyed by construction appear in the architecture  Casa Calvet  Only award he received (1900) building of the year  Only commissions he got from the city was for street lamps o Placa Reial Parc Guell 1900-1914  Very famous  Ceramic mosaics  Organic beams and vaults  Garden/ park  7 entrance gates  Failed as a residence  Used discarded ceramtic tiles  Columns collect water for fountain  Parters lodge and administrative building  Spiral tower, with 4 branch cross  Double staircase  The Market Hall at the top, with 84 columns  Casa Batllo 1905-1907  Building was already there, gaudi reinvents  Balconies  Undulating roof  Nature brought into the construction, also in the structure  Made of concrete  Expressionist, art nouveau  He transformed the house, was already there  No angles or flat surfaces  Pillar=feet of elephant  Balconies look like skulls  Birds nest  Feels like a sea serpent  Fish scales  House of masks  Harlequins cap on roof  4 branch cross  Roof look like a dinosaur  Curving lines continue inside La Pedrera (Casa Mila) „the quarry‟ 1906-1910  Last civil work  Flowing lines  Windows=caves  Designed the entire building  Soldiers with helmets on roof  Sculptures on roof  Internal walls not needed o Used metal girders and vaults supported by columns Sagrada Familia  Spent 43 years til death  Started 1883  Dedicated to the holy family  Worked on solely for his last 15 years Spanish Unit 2: Picasso Picasso  Prototype of the modern painter  1881-1973  Diversity of art o Many different styles  3 museums devoted to his work o Antibes  Very small  South eastern france  1966 o Barcelona  Museau Picasso  1963  Early work and paintings  Blue period o Paris  Muse Picasso  Largest  3000 different works  Drawing, ceramics, and paintings  Strayed away from tradition  Shifted the goal post of visual creation  Guernica o name of a small Basque town  Euskara (spoken by about 25 % of people) o o Most famous painting o Advocate for peace o Shows the horror of war o Inhumanity of man o Political and artistic impact o Influenced pop artist: Peter Saul o April 26, 1937 Guernica is bombed by forces under German command o Guernica: no military importance o report of atrocities reached world press o Gernica transformed into a symbol of modern warfare o Picasso changed his original plans for the mural and decided to create a piece of art to symbolize the terror of war o mural: huge o format: horizontal o measures: 11ft. 6 inches x 25ft. 8 inches o monumental effect, but not oppressive o almost monochromatic: black, white and shades of grey o composition: central triangle with a side wing to the left and a side wing to the right o Guernica was painted in
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