ML100 lectures 1-3 review.rtf

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Medieval Studies
Heather Parker

ML100 EXAM REVIEW 1. Early Christianity - Cultural revolution - Approx. 2000 years ago - Jesus was charged with inciting rebellion and crucified - Image of Jesus was created by white Europeans - Visible world is the world of exile - Began as mystery cult in Roman tradition - Add on to Pagan religion - 39 books of Old Testament (Greek) - Christians added 27 (Hebrew) - Believe the worse your life is on earth, the better it will be in heaven - Martyrdom: Killing of Christians - Burnt, killed, eaten by lions - Seen as symbol of faith - Christians didn't scream out in pain - Made others think that God was so great that he saved martyrs from pain - Became official religion of Rome in 391 A.D. under the power of Theodosius 100 A.D - 337 A.D - Christianity was illegal - Persecuted but growing rapidly Paul or Tarsus - Most famous disciple - Died c. 64 A.D. - Roman Jew - Opposed cult of Jesus until he had a vision that Jesus was divine - Believed he was blessed with a vision and that he had to spread the word - Stated that God wouldn't favour Jews because it's closely related to Christianity - Jews were persecuted by Christians as a result Emperor Diocletian (303 A.D. - 311 A.D.) - Destroyed churches, books - Forbid worship - Those that refused to convert were sent into slavery - Believed that Roman’s political world was falling apart because religion was not strong - conflicting religions = conflicting beliefs on war and laws Emperor Constantine I (r. 306 A.D. - 337 A.D.) - Constantinople known as new Rome - Fundamental growth to the rise of Christianity -Split into Western (Catholicism) and Eastern (Orthodox) - Major shift occurred in 330 A.D. - Council of Nicacea - 325 A.D. - Known for Aryanism - Converted to Christianity on his death bed - Accommodated and reimbursed Christians - Gave back churches with no taxes - Made Christianity favoured religion - Gave back lost land - Freedom of religion Aryanism - Preached by Arius (c. 256-336) - Large number of followers - Believed God and Jesus were not the same but alike in substance - contradicted Christian belief that God and Jesus were the same - Arius (believed were alike in substance but not the same) vs. Nicaeans (believe God and Jesus were the same) - Caused various wars - Theologies that determined who was and was not Christian Gnostic - Believed in two gods; the noble and unnoble god - Always strive to obtain more knowledge - Had own schools, myths, churches, writings Church Fathers - Tertullian - Stated that Christianity had to have own set of beliefs - Adamant on not using Greek philosophy because they are not Christian - Some believed that knowledge of Greek could further explain Christianity - many fathers used Greek philosophy - St. Clement of Alexandria - Used Greek beliefs - Made Christianity more intellectually appealing - No longer aimed at poor - St. Jerome (c. 340-420) - Translated Old and New Testament into Latin - Made Christianity more popular - More priests and bishops were able to access it - Personal secretary to the pope - Admirer of Roman/Greek writers - Lived as hermit in the desert - Left Rome, established monastery near Bethlehem - Promoter of monotheism - St. Augustine of Hippo - Most important of all fathers - Born in North Africa - Father was pagan, mother was Christian - Author of Confessions and City of God - Confessions - autobiography about his sins (parties, concubines, etc.) - City of God - Took 13 years to write - States that there is a plan for Christians - There is a city of God (Rome) and city of man (full of sinners, crumbled, invisible) - As the city of man crumbles, the best Christians get to live a good life in the city of God - Deep love for mother influenced conversion to Christianity - Elected as bishop of Hippo 2. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire - Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) - 18th century historian and author - Wrote the book “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” Reasons for the fall 1. East-West Division - Eastern empire had collapsed though Constantinople (West) did not - Divided by religion and language (East spoke Greek while West spoke Latin) 2. Barbarian Invasions - Barbarians were moving and plundering Europe - Some barbarian groups allied with Rome but broke alliances quickly - Took over large pieces of territory and major portions of government - Turned Rome into Germanic empire from within - Racial suicide: Barbarians were breeding with Romans - Roman bloodline is lost - Heirs were being killed off by Barbarians and ROmans resulting in eventual takeover of nations by Barbarians 3. Declining birth rate (shortage of man power) - Declining number of slaves - Slave class was disappearing after their emancipation - Standard of living decreased as a result - “Romans got lazy” - Got used to slaves doing everything they found it difficult to adapt without them 4. Lead poisoning - No sufficient evidence to prove or disprove this theory - Lead poisoning from pipes killed off hundreds 5. Economic mismanagement - Divide between rich and poor - elimination of middle class completely - To keep the poor from rising up against Romans, they tried to keep them fed and entertained - Panem et circentes (bread and circuses) 6. Christianity - Paganism was critical to maintaining politics - Paganism disappeared, army disappeared, government and army disappeared - Christian beliefs did not coincide with Roman political system - New Christian ideals established caused crumble of Roman military - *Link back to Barbarian invasions Legacy of Rome - Holy Roman Empire (800) - Neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire - Nation, realm or confederation of princes - Saw themselves as holy because they were anointed by the pope - Same status as the king of a nation - The more they could link themselves with the past , the more powerful they became Charlemagne (c. 742-814) - First emperor in Western Europe after the decline of Roman Empire - King of the Franks - Expanded their kingdom Byzantium - Comes from the Eastern-Roman Empire - Own form of Christianity - Capital of Constantinople - In constant conflict with west - only at peace during crusades Islamic Empires - Religious heirs of Christian Rome - Saw themselves as territorial leaders of Rome Seljuk Sultanate of Rum - Now known as Turkey - Rum = Roman Empire - State within Anatolia Italian City-States - All the cities themselves were their own political unions - Had their own elections - Very rich cities - Because they were located in Italy, they saw themselves as what Rome evolved into - Papal States: Territory that actually belonged to the pope St. Genovefa (c. 420-510) - Heroine of medieval legend - Saved Paris from Attila the Hun (nomad that travelled and conquered) - Increased morale with prayers, fastings and vigils - Convinced the citizens that Attila would attack the surrounding cities and encampment - Repels enemy with prayers - Taught the citizens that the City of Paris was protected by God and therefore would not fall Sidonius to Bishop Patiens - Gothic ravages destroyed all of the fields and the bishop, out of his own money, gave grain to all misfortune - Praised because of acts of kindness - Spoke for the city of Claremont Salvian of Marsailles - Barbarians were outcasts of Salvain’s Rome - Rome was falling because people refused to protest what was happening - People tended to gravitate to the more accepting and loving nature of the Barbarian family The Christian Identity - Grew to full-fledged religion in 4th-6th century - Roman Catholic Church replaced Roman Empire as dominant authority in the West - After legalization in 313 A.D., followers of the church began to try to resolve questions of church hierarchy, dogma and rituals of public worship Ostrogoth - Eastern Barbarian group - Under Theodoric ruling Visigoth - Western Barbarian group - Let into Roman Empire - Under Alaric who takes position as the master of soldiers in Rome revolt - Killed Eastern-Roman emperor and army - Ransac the city of Rome and kidnap emperors daughter Galla Placidia Romulus Augustulus (r. 475-476) - Last Western Roman emporer - Essentially a puppet - Under Odovacar - Western master of soliders Emperor Zeno (c. 425-491) - Eastern emperor - Revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign - Had no choice but to let Odovacar take over - Hope that Ostrogoths would get rid of Odovacar Theodoric (453-526) - Leader of Ostrogoths - Zeno convinced him to not take over/invade Constantinople - Tricked Odovacar - share power of Italy - Lied and slit the throat of Odovacar Ravenna - Capital city of the Western Roman empire until its collapse - Then the capital of the kingdom of the Ostrogoths - Then formed the centre of Byzantine - Then the invasion of the Franks made it the Kingdom of Lombards Burgundians - East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scotland to the island of Bornholm Alamanni - A confederation of Germanic tribes - Later expanded, establishing the German language in regions - The Alamanni were conquered by the Frankish leader Clovis and incorporated into his dominions Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius - 16th century philosopher - Imprisoned and eventu
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