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PO263 Study Guide - Final Guide: Wield, Canada Social Transfer, Distinct Society

Political Science
Course Code
Christopher Alcantara
Study Guide

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PO 263 study guide
oThe question to be asked is who rules and why?
oWho Rules? oCommon Good oOwn interest
oOne oKingship otyranny
oFew oaristocracy ooligarchy
omany Polity odemcracy
According to Aristotle, the first question is the understanding of why those
who rule understand the purpose of political rule
Second question states who eactly does get to rule?
-- Aristotles views
Canada’s regime principle
Direct democracy
oRegimes in which all of the citizens were directly involved in political
decision making.
Representative democracy
oThe increase in the size of the cities populations or countries population
calls for representative democracy and not the direct form that anciet
Greece used with their small population.
Liberty- in contemporary liberal democracies, there are two schoolsof thought
oNatural rights
Every indidual posseses certain rightd
Right to life liberty and property
The importance of liberty derives from it usefulness as a menas of
promoting human happiness
Harm principle
oJohn stuart mills

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Governments cannot interfere with the
actions of individuals so long as those
individuals are not harming others
Means two things for politics
Onus of prof is lwasy on the
government to show wh any law that
limits our individual liberty is
oRights enjoyed by citizens of liberal democracy
Protection of the private sphere
The government has no right to make laws about the
private life like sexual relations between people and a quote
that says “ the government has no place in the bedrooms
Respect for minority rights
The rule of law
Citizens must be able to count on what we often call law
and order, for without the protection of an effective legal
order, the rights of everyone would be in jeopardy
Important concept of rule of law is in fact constitutionalism
The Canadian regime
oThe constitution is thus the Skelton or frame work of the regime, and any
study of the regime will therefore entail frequent reference to it
The Constitution Chapter 2
oConstitution is defined as a set of rules that authoritatively establishes
both the structure and the fundamental principle of the political regime
oFirst principle- Who exercises the various forms of political authority
Legislative Power
Power to make policy or law
Create a law that no one may drive an automobile when
their blood has an alcohol content above .05 percent
Executive power
Power to execute or administer that law or policy
oThis is the power to establish and aintain a police
force to catch impaired drivers
Judicial powr
Power to settle questions about specific violations of law
and to choose a suitable punishment from among those
permited in the relevant legislation for those found guilty
oSecond function- function of the constitution is to provide an
authtoraitative division of powers between national and regional
governments in federal countries
- In Canada, the residuary powers were allocated to the federal

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government. The Fathers of Confederation wanted to avoid the
"weaknesses" of the American constitution which had left all residual
powers in the hands of the constituting states. The conditions prevalent in
British North America, at the time of Confederation seemed to dictate the
creation of a strong federal government endowed with sufficiently large
powers to withstand American pressures and create a strong national
economy. Residuary powers would assure, in the future, the continued
strength of the Dominion government.
-In a strict sense the whole of s.91 is the residuary clause since the
federal government was granted the power to legislate "for the Peace,
Order and good Government of Canada, in relation to all Matters not
coming within the classes of Subjects by this Act assigned exclusively to
the Legislature of the Provinces
Third major function of a constitution is to delineate the limits of
governmental power
oThe idea of the constitutionalism implies that the
constitution is supreme and that government is subordinate
to it.’\
oEx. No government, national or provincial, has the pwes
to take measures that would violate its citizens right to
religios freedom
The fourth function of a constitution is to provide or an orderly
wasy to make changes to it
oConstitution of Canada contains a number of provison for it
Commonly used are the general or unianmous
amending formula’s
The fundamental rules that make up a regime
oConventions which are political rules
Unwritten agreement, accepted as binding by
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