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Political Science
Christopher Anderson

Citizenship Citizenship as Legal Status Citizenship figures in the assurance or denial of rights, economic benefits and social services, education, due process of law and opportunities to affect political decisions 1. Jus Sanguimis: born into it, by Canadian blood (“right of blood”) 2. Jus Soli: placement, space, born in Canadian territory- you are Canadian (“right for the soil) 3. Naturalisation: culture, values, customs, lived here long enough, become a part of it because you have worked on it—language Citizenship can mean legal membership in a country, or a full menu of rights and obligations that define an individual’s relationship with fellow citizens and with the state. Different conceptions of citizenship are characterized by common concerns: the inclusion/exclusion that is constitutive of membership, rights and duties, and full participation in practice. Ancient civilizations of Athens coined this tern when citizenship was granted to few. It is an Aristotelian ideal: a citizen is one who both “rules and is ruled”. The post-war concept of citizenship as rights is being challenged by “active” models of citizenship who stress responsibility. The liberal concept of citizenship is being criticized for exclusions based on categories of difference. Conditions of globalization are giving rise to new forms of citizenship. Legal/Social Citizenship Citizenship as legal status: - Membership in a nation-state defined by territory and sovereignty - A legal bond between a state, its laws, and an individual encompassing both rights and responsibilities on the part of the state and the individual in social, economic, and political dimensions Citizenship as social status: Citizenship “
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