Citizenship as Legal Status
Citizenship figures in the assurance or denial of rights, economic benefits and social services,
education, due process of law and opportunities to affect political decisions
1. Jus Sanguimis: born into it, by Canadian blood (“right of blood”)
2. Jus Soli: placement, space, born in Canadian territory- you are Canadian (“right for the
3. Naturalisation: culture, values, customs, lived here long enough, become a part of it
because you have worked on it—language
Citizenship can mean legal membership in a country, or a full menu of rights and obligations that
define an individual’s relationship with fellow citizens and with the state. Different conceptions
of citizenship are characterized by common concerns: the inclusion/exclusion that is constitutive
of membership, rights and duties, and full participation in practice. Ancient civilizations of
Athens coined this tern when citizenship was granted to few.
It is an Aristotelian ideal: a citizen is one who both “rules and is ruled”.
The post-war concept of citizenship as rights is being challenged by “active” models of
citizenship who stress responsibility. The liberal concept of citizenship is being criticized for
exclusions based on categories of difference. Conditions of globalization are giving rise to new
forms of citizenship.
Citizenship as legal status:
- Membership in a nation-state defined by territory and sovereignty
- A legal bond between a state, its laws, and an individual encompassing both rights and
responsibilities on the part of the state and the individual in social, economic, and
Citizenship as social status: