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Final

PS 102 Notes for Final Exam (COMPLETE)

114 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Eileen Wood

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Lesson 1: Chapter 6: Learning (pp. 239-247) // Lesson 2: Chapter 6: Learning (pp. 247-281)
--Phobias are irrational fears of specific objects or situation and is often the result of another learning process
termed classical conditioning.
--Learning refers to a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience
--Conditioning: learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment
Classical Conditioning
--Classical conditioning: is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that
was originally evoked by another stimulus.
--Pavlovian conditioning: the term conditioning comes from Pavlov’s determination to discover the “conditions”
that produce this kind of learning.
------Pavlov’s Demonstration: “Psychic Reflexes”------
--Pavlov was studying the role of saliva in the digestive processes of dogs when he stumbled onto: “psychic
reflexes
--Various stimuli (tone)  the dog responded by salivating to the sound of the tone alone “Neutral stimulus
--What Pavlov had demonstrated was how learned associationswhich were viewed as the basic building
blocks of the entire learning process – were formed by events in an organism’s environment
--Based on this insight, he built a broad theory of learning that attempted to explain aspects of emotion,
temperament, neuroses, and language.
--“Functional perspective” on Pavlovian conditioning
--Psychologists suggest that such conditioning must be evolutionarily adaptive, contributing to our reproductive
fitness.
------Terminology and Procedures------
Unconditioned association – natural unlearned association (E.g.: the meat powder and salivation was a
natural, unlearned association)
--The unconditioned stimulus (UCS): is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous
conditioning.
--The unconditioned response (UCR): is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs
without previous conditioning.
Conditioned association
--The conditioned stimulus (CS): is a preciously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the
capacity to evoke a conditioning response.
--The conditioned response (CR): is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of
precious conditioning.
--Pavlov’s “psychic reflex” came to be called the conditioned reflex.
--Classically conditioned responses have traditionally been characterized as reflexes and are said to be elicited
(drawn forth) because most of them are relatively automatic or involuntary.
------Classical Conditioning in Everyday life------
--Example: eyelid closure, knee jerks, the flexing of various limbs, and fear responses
--Classical conditioning often plays a key role in shaping emotional responses such as fear
--Phobias: example: bridge phobia, she couldn’t drive on highways because of all the viaducts that had to be
crossed
So: CS=bridge (CR)
UCS=father’s scare tactics  UCR=Fear
Conditioning and Physiological responses
Before conditioning: NS  No response
UCS  UCR
During conditioning: NS
UCS  UCR
After conditioning: CS  CR
Summary: CS, UCS  CR, UCR
Her farther, in a misguided attempt at humor,
made a major production out or these
crossings. He would stop short of the bridge
and carry on about the enormous danger. The
naïve young girl was terrified by her father’s
scare tactics.
--Body immune functioning: when an infectious agent invades your body, your immune system attempts to
repeal the invasion by producing specialized proteins called antibodies
--When the immune system is disabled, as occurs with the disease AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome)
--The functioning of the immune system can be influenced by psycho factors, including conditioning
--Classical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppression – a decrease in the production of antibodies
--Studies suggest that classical conditioning can also elicit allergic reactions and that classical conditioning
contributes to the growth of drug tolerance and the experience of withdrawal symptoms when the drug use is
halted
--Studies have also demonstrated that classical conditioning can influence sexual arousal
--Classical conditioning may also underlie the development of fetishes for inanimate objects
Conditioning and Drug effects
--Classical conditioning also contributes to drug tolerance
--The conditioned responses are physiological reactions that are just the opposite of the normal effects of the
drugs
--These opponent responses, which have been seen as the result of conditioning with narcotics, stimulants, and
alcohol, are called compensatory CRs because they partially compensate for some drug effects.
--These compensatory CRs help to maintain homeostasis (internal balance) in physiological processes
E.g.: quail can be conditioned to become sexually aroused by a neutral,
nonsexual stimulus – such as a red light.
Conditioned stimuli can even elicit increased sperm release in male quail – a
conditional response that would convey an obvious evolutionary advantage
-- What role do these compensatory CRs play in drug tolerance? --
--Most drug users have routines that lead to the consistent pairing of drug administration and
certain stimuli, such as syringes, cocaine bottles, and specific settings and rituals. Even the
drug administration process itself can become a CS associated with drug effects
--These environmental cues eventually begin to elicit compensatory CRs that partially cancel
out some of the anticipated effects of abused drugs.
--As these compensatory CRs strengthen, they neutralize more and more of a drug’s
pleasurable effects, producing a gradual decline in the user’s responsiveness to the drug

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Description
Lesson 1 Chapter 6 Learning pp 239247Lesson 2 Chapter 6 Learning pp 247281Phobias are irrational fears of specific objects or situation and is often the result of another learning process termed classical conditioning Learning refers to a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experienceConditioning learning associations between events that occur in an organisms environmentClassical ConditioningClassical conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulusPavlovian conditioning the term conditioning comes from Pavlovs determination to discover the conditions that produce this kind of learningPavlovs Demonstration Psychic ReflexesPavlov was studying the role of saliva in the digestive processes of dogs when he stumbled onto psychic reflexes Various stimuli tonethe dog responded by salivating to the sound of the tone alone Neutral stimulusWhat Pavlov had demonstrated was how learned associationswhich were viewed as the basic building blocks of the entire learning processwere formed by events in an organisms environmentBased on this insight he built a broad theory of learning that attempted to explain aspects of emotion temperament neuroses and languageFunctional perspective on Pavlovian conditioningPsychologists suggest that such conditioning must be evolutionarily adaptive contributing to our reproductive fitnessTerminology and ProceduresUnconditioned associationnatural unlearned association Eg the meat powder and salivation was a natural unlearned associationThe unconditioned stimulus UCS is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioningThe unconditioned response UCR is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioningConditioned associationThe conditioned stimulus CS is a preciously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioning responseThe conditioned response CR is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of precious conditioningPavlovs psychic reflex came to be called the conditioned reflexBefore conditioning NSNo responseUCSUCRDuring conditioning NS UCSUCRAfter conditioningCSCRSummary CS UCSCR UCRClassically conditioned responses have traditionally been characterized as reflexes and are said to be elicited drawn forth because most of them are relatively automatic or involuntaryClassical Conditioning in Everyday lifeExample eyelid closure knee jerks the flexing of various limbs and fear responsesClassical conditioning often plays a key role in shaping emotional responses such as fearPhobias example bridge phobia she couldnt drive on highways because of all the viaducts that had to be crossed Her farther in a misguided attempt at humor made a major production out or these So CSbridge CRcrossings He would stop short of the bridge and carry on about the enormous danger TheUCSfathers scare tacticsUCRFearnave young girl was terrified by her fathers Conditioning and Physiological responsesscare tacticsBody immune functioning when an infectious agent invades your body your immune system attempts to repeal the invasion by producing specialized proteins called antibodiesWhen the immune system is disabled as occurs with the disease AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndromeThe functioning of the immune system can be influenced by psycho factors including conditioningClassical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppressiona decrease in the production of antibodiesStudies suggest that classical conditioning can also elicit allergic reactions and that classical conditioning contributes to the growth of drug tolerance and the experience of withdrawal symptoms when the drug use is haltedStudies have also demonstrated that classical conditioning can influence sexual arousalEg quail can be conditioned to become sexually aroused by a neutral nonsexual stimulussuch as a red light Conditioned stimuli can even elicit increased sperm release in male quaila conditional response that would convey an obvious evolutionary advantageClassical conditioning may also underlie the development of fetishes for inanimate objectsConditioning and Drug effectsClassical conditioning also contributes to drug toleranceThe conditioned responses are physiological reactions that are just the opposite of the normal effects of the drugsThese opponent responses which have been seen as the result of conditioning with narcotics stimulants and alcohol are called compensatory CRs because they partially compensate for some drug effectsThese compensatory CRs help to maintain homeostasis internal balance in physiological processes What role do these compensatory CRs play in drug tolerance Most drug users have routines that lead to the consistent pairing of drug administration and syringes cocaine bottles and specific settings and rituals Even the certain stimuli such as drug administration process itself can become a CS associated with drug effectsThese environmental cues eventually begin to elicit compensatory CRs that partially cancel out some of the anticipated effects of abused drugsAs these compensatory CRs strengthen they neutralize more and more of a drugs pleasurable effects producing a gradual decline in the users responsiveness to the drug
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