PS280 Study Guide - Final Guide: Gestalt Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Behavioral Activation

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14 Aug 2019
Cognitive-behavioural therapy:
-therapists focus on present thoughts and behaviours as opposed to childhood history
-behavioural therapy: behaviours are learned / faulty learning can be reversed (specific targets)
-Ellis rational emotive + Beck's cognitive therapy: purely cognitive / individual’s perception of
events, rather than events themselves, affects adjustment + identify automatic thoughts +
change maladaptive patterns of thinking + foster therapist-client relationship
-Third Wave CBT emphasizes accepting presence of maladaptive thoughts + mindfulness
Response shaping:
-rewarding behaviour bit by bit until final goal is achieved; ex child who cannot dress
themselves puts on shirt one day, then pants, then socks until able to dress themself completely
-the heart of behaviour approaches; rewarding desired behaviour = more likely to be repeated
-positive: adding something good / negative: taking away something bad
Behavioural activation:
-enjoyable activities help alleviate depression, but depressed individuals avoid them
-develop strategies to increase overall activity + counteract their tendencies to avoid
-as clients experience more natural reinforcers their depressive symptoms begin to diminish
-may be the main ingredient of CBT
Gestalt therapy (Frederich Perls):
-help clients become aware of feelings and needs that have been ignored/distorted + recognize
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these needs are a part of themselves and should be accepted
-key goal is client awareness; clients must integrate both inner feelings + external environments
-therapists attends to nonverbal cues + clients experience what is going on in the present
-empty chair technique used to make client more aware of genuine feelings
Carl Rogers:
-client-cented therapy as alternative to psychoanalysis
-humanistic, emphasizes client-therapist relationship/equal power; “patient” as “client”
-humans are good and strive for self-actualization
-warm/permissive therapist + tolerant climate where clients' feelings can be freely expressed
-psychological problems arise when personal growth is stunted by others' judgments; client
believes they must meet standards of others to be a worth-while person
Classical psychoanalysis techniques:
Free association: clients simply talks about whatever they are thinking/feeling and include even
details they think are embarassing or irrelevant, analyst helps recognize unconscious
motives/conflicts expressed in spontaneous speech
Analysis transference: core of psychoanalysis; client responds to therapist as they responded to
significant figures from childhood + unconsciously re-experience repressed thoughts
-by recognizing transference/remaining neutral, therapist helps client work thru conflict
-counter-transference: can't allow personal feelings to interfere w client relationship
Analysis resistence: clients become resistant (not showing up to therapy, not talking)
-resistance prevents painful thoughts from entering awareness; thus, therapists must
determine source of resistance if the client is to deal effectively w the problem
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