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PS 100 Midterm 4 Review

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Don Morgenson

Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Others Effects of Physical Appearance • People are swayed by appearance • Good looking people grab our attention • People tend to ascribe desirable traits to attractive people • Expected to have better lives, spouses, careers, • Even children • Little correlation between looks and personality traits • Social Schemas o Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events or people o Influence the process of perception • Stereotypes o Most based on sex, age, ethnic, and occupation o Automatic o Widely held social schemas • Illusory correlation o Ppl estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen o Ive never met an honest lawyer • May be a primitive need to separate friend from foe Attribution Processes: Explaining Behaviour • Attributions o Inferences about the causes of events and behaviour o Made to understand social world o Internal  Behaviour given to personal dispositions and traits, abilities and feelings o External  Behaviour caused by environment and situational demands • Weiners Model o Attributions for success and failure should be seen in terms of stability of cause o Internal and external o Oberservers see internal to explain others behaviour o Actors see external attributions to explain their own behaviour • Defensive Attribution o People unfairly blame victims for their own misfortune to reduce their own feelings of vulnerability • Self Serving Bias o Tendency to attribute good outcomes to personal factors and bad ones to situational factors • Fundamental attribution error o Observers bias in favour of internal attributions in explaining others behaviour o Overestimation • Individualism o Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships o Western nations • Collectivism o Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one;s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to o Asia, Africa and Latin America o Promote different biases o Less prone to fundamental attribution error • May be a by product of western individualism Close Relationships: Liking and Loving • Interpersonal attraction o Positive feelings toward another • Physical attractiveness o More attractive people achieve greater mating success o Influences the course of commitment o More important for women o Matching hypothesis  Males and females of approx equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners • Similarity Effects o Tend to be similar in age race, religion, social class, personality, education, intelligence, attractiveness, and attitudes o Also seen in friends o Don Byrne • Reciprocity o Liking those who show that they like you o Tend to see others as liking us more if we like them o Self-enhancement, feedback o Self-verification, seek feedback that matches and supports their self concept • Romantic Ideals o Personality qualities that one hopes to find in a partner o More satisfied if partner matches ideals • Passionate Love o Complete absorption in another that includes sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion o Sometimes resembles an addiction • Companionate Love o Warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own • Intimacy o Warmth, closeness and sharing • Commitment o Intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise Attitudes: Making social Judgments • Attitudes o Not always consistent o Strength vary o Create dispositions to act certain ways o Positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought • Cognitive o Beliefs that people hold about the object of an attitude • Affective o Attitude consisting of the emotional feelings stimulated by an object of an attitude • Behavioural o Predisposition to act in certain ways toward an attitude object • Persuasion o Credible o Expert o Trust worthy o Physically attractive o Source  Person who sends a communication o Receiver  Person to whom the message is sent o Message  Info transmitted by the source and the channel is the medium through which the message is sent • Learning Theory o Affective, emotional component learned from conditioning o Operant conditioning, whcn express strong attitude o Observational learning when others attitudes rub off • Dissonance Theory o Festinger o Assumes that inconsistency among attitudes propels people in the direction of attitude change o Counter attitudinal behaviour  Do something that is inconsistent with their true feelings  Cognitive dissonance • Related cognitions are inconsistent that ism when they contradict each other • Self Perception Theory o People infer their attitudes from their behaviour • Two sided argument • Fear arousal Conformity and Obedience: Yielding to Others • Conformity o People yield to real or imagined social pressure o Group size and unanimity, • Obedience o Compliance when people follow direct commands usually from someone in a position of authority Behaviour in Groups: Joining with Others Social Neuroscience • Approach to research and theory in social psychology that integrates models of neuroscience and social psychology to study the mechanism of social behaviour Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment The Nature of Personality • Five Factor model of Personality Traits o Extraversion  Outgoing, assertive  Positive emotionality o Neuroticism  Anxious, hostile, self conscious, insecure, vulnerable  Over react in response to stress o Openness to experience  Curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imagination, artistic sensitivity, unconventional attitudes o Agreeableness  Sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, straight forward  Opposite: suspicious, antagonistic, aggressive  Constructive approach to conflict o Conscientiousness  Diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual, dependable Psychodynamic Perspectives • Theories o All the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces • Freuds Theory o Structure of Personality  Id • Primitive, instinctive component, operates according to pleasure principle • Primary process thinking o Primitive, irrational, fantasy • raw biological urges  Pleasure Principle • Demands immediate satisfaction  Ego • Decision making, operates according to the reality principle • Mediates between the id and external world • Considers social reality, norms and etiquette • Wants to maximize gratification • Secondary process thinking o Rational, realistic and oriented to problem solving • Avoid negative consequences from society by behaving • Operate at all three level
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