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Psych Chapter Summaries.odt

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Don Morgenson

Psychology Chapter Summaries Chapter 1 Anew science is born – Psychology's intellectual parents were philosophy and physiology. – Psychology's founder was Wilhelm Wundt, who set up the first research lab in Germany, in 1879 – Wundt argued that psychology should be the scientific study of consciousness – G. Stanley Hall launched America's first psychology journal in 1887 and helped establish the American PsychologicalAssociation (APA) in 1892 The battle of the “schools” begins – Advocates of structuralism argued that psychology should use introspection to analyze consciousness and its basic elements – Advocates of functionalism argued that psychology should investigate the purposes of consciousness – Functionalism had a more lasting impact on psychology, as it fostered the emergence of behaviourism and applied psychology Freud focuses on unconscious forces – Although Sigmund Freud's views were controversial, they gradually became influential – Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes unconscious determinants of behaviour and the importance of sexuality – According to Freud, the unconscious consists of thoughts that one is not aware of but that still influence one's behaviour. Behaviourism debuts – Behaviourism, founded by John B. Watson, asserted that psychology should study only observable behaviourism – This view gradually took hold and psychology became the scientific study of behaviour (instead of Consciousness) – The behaviourists stressed the importance of environment over heredity and pioneered animal research. Behaviourism flourishes with the work of skinner – Boosted by B.F.Skinner's research, behaviourism reached its zenith of influence in the 1950's. – Like Watson, he emphasized animal research, a strict focus on observable behaviour, and the importance of environment – He generated controversy by arguing that free will is an illusion The humanists revolt – Finding both behaviourism and psychoanalysis unappealing, advocates of humanism, such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, began to gain some influence in the 1950's – Humanism emphasizes the unique qualities of human behaviour and the irrelevance of animal research – The humanists also took an optimistic view of human nature, stressing human's freedom and potential for growth Psychology in Canada – The first experimental laboratory in Canada was established in 1891 at the University of Toronto by James Mark Baldwin – The Canadian PsychologicalAssociation was formed in 1939 – Rapid growth in Canadian psychology has been evident over the last century Psychology becomes a profession th – In the first half of the 20 century, only a handful of psychologists were involved in the delivery of professional services to the public – However, stimulated by the demands of World War 2, clinical psychology began rapid growth in the 1950's – Today, the vast majority of psychologists are involved in professional services Cognition and physiology resurface – In its early days, psychology emphasized the study of consciousness and physiology, but these topics languished as behaviourism grew more dominant – During the 1950's and 60's advances in research on mental and physiological processes led to renewed interest in cognition and the biological bases of behaviour Interest in cultural factors grows – In the 1980's, Western psychologists developed increased interest in how cultural variables influence behaviour. – This trend was stimulated by the increased cultural diversity in Western societies and by growing global interdependence. Evolutionary psychology gains prominence – The 1990's saw the emergence of a major, new theoretical perspective called evolutionary psychology. – Its crucial premise is that the patterns of behaviour seen in a species are the product of evolution, just like anatomical characteristics. – According to evolutionary psychologists, natural selection favours behaviours that enhance organism's reproductive success Psychology moves in a positive direction – Martin Seligman, former president ofAPA, argued that psychology historically has focused too much on pathology and suffering. He launched the positive psychology movement in the late 1990's – Positive psychology uses theory and research to better understand our adaptive, creative, and fulfilling experiences and processes. It emphasizes constructs such as positive emotions, personal, strength and happiness. Chapter 2 ScientificApproach - Goals • Measurement and Description • Understanding a
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