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PS101 – 1st Midterm.docx

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Don Morgenson

PS101 – 1 Midterm Chapter 1, 2 and Appendix B **Wundt – believes psychology should focus on conscious experience **William James – functionalist **Watson – Behavior, based his work off of Pavlov **Pavlov – Salivating dogs **Skinner – free will is an illusion (repeating responses based on outcome) **Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow – humanistic **G. Stanley Hall – 1 North American laboratory **Data collected by researcher = dependent variable **Random assignment will ensure similarities in test groups Chapter 1: History of Psychology and Different Schools of Thought  Psychology devotes itself to scientific policy  The quest for knowledge is neutral  Application is not neutral (ex: Icarus flying to close to the sun)  Psychology was born in Germany in 1879, so it is a relatively “youthful” science  It is the science of human behavior -> exterior  The human interior -> the science of experience  Plato ‘every student is a light”, creative sparks, we are the interior Difficulties/Questions with Psychology o The complexity of human behavior/brain  Brain Mind?  Brain can’t answer all questions about itself o Ethical  All questions are ethical  Violations in medicine  Consequentialists – intervene now means greater good for all (doing harm) Ex: Hugh Cameron  Deontological approach – protect all nature and humans (ex: Dr. Goldburger)  Didn’t use testing but studied people o Confidentiality o Deception – how much is necessary o Prejudice about learning about ourselves  Confronting darkness  Psychophobia – fear of studying ourselves  People know upset our knowledge about ourselves; Capernacus (earth around the sun), Darwin (theory of evolution) and Freud (unconscious decisions) o Context of Human Existence  Science is redefining terms that we have known for thousands of years  Giving up psychological center to machines (AI)  Speed of advancements is dramatic  Is change always good? (People will change even if there is no need to)  Continuity – keep good, eradicate bad  How do we protect nature from humans?  Symbolic language has been altered -> infuses into our conscious life  Transcendence -> hunger for it  General principles that are applied to individuals  Deductive/inductive Biopsychosocial Model  Biological -> psychological -> social  All 3 effect each other  Humans are biopsychosocial  You cannot assume that all of someone’s problems are purely of these factors History of Psychology  Long past, short history o Same questions have been asked forever  Animism – every physical object has a spirit to it o Can be daemonic (good) or demonic (bad) o Ex: children give characteristics to objects  Plato – ideas are the highest form, strive for perfect thoughts, avoid materialistic endeavors  Aristotle – emphasized material, mind does the body’s bidding  Materialism – reality is revealed through an understanding of the physical world of which the mind is a part  John Locke – laid the foundation for empiricism o Tabula asa – mind is a blank slate, knowledge originates in experience  1879 – Wundt created 1 laboratory of psychology Different Schools of Psychology  Structuralism (the school) – the study of the conscious experience o Introspection (the method) – reflect on your experiences and though  Wundt – the mind consists of structures and you report your conscience experience which then become structures o Reductionalistic o Mentalistic  Functionalism – what the mind is for, it helps you adjust (survival of the fittest) o Helped shaped by Darwin and William James o Williams James said we should study the function rather then the structure  Behaviorism – mind is a black box (full of unknown, little picture) o Cognitive thinking is valueless o Behavior can be manipulated through incentives o Psychology should study observable events o Stimuli -> responses o Ex: students get rewarded by education is they do well o John Watson based his work off of Pavlov (salivating dogs) and BF Skinner o If the stimuli is responsive to incentives, it will be repeated o John Watson became president of the APA in 1915 o Skinner trained animals to do amazing things (pigeons playing ping pong) o All of us learn through the same principles, reinforcement o “How have these behaviors been supported?” -> Biological (structuralism), psychological (functionalism) and social (behaviorism)  Max Vertemer -> mental experience cannot be broken down o Brain will try to make sense of patterns  Gestalt – the whole individual is complex and cannot be broken down to stimuli/responses (big picture) o Emphasized perception (how brain interprets vision) o Brain tries to see patterns in the whole o Brain try’s to make sense of what is happening when there is no stimuli (ex: dreaming), try’s to find patters when there is none o Try’s to give meaning to stimuli, find patterns in life o Emphasizes closure (ex: a breakup), existential ache o Looks at the whole  Psychoanalysis – Freud o Also a form of psychotherapy o Emphasizes on the unconscious and libido (sexual energy) o Everything we do is an expression of our libido o **ID, SUPEREGO, EGO** o Electra complex – Oedipus complex  Parents sexually abusing their children. Freud manipulated his study to blame the children  Humanistic/Existentialism – Maslow, Rogers o A completely, scientific approach has robbed us of our humanity o Inherent goodness can be reduced o We are characterized by spontaneity (Skinner would argue you are on a script, Freud would say libid
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