Study Guides (238,613)
Canada (115,253)
Psychology (638)
PS102 (63)

midterm ps 102 online.docx

48 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

Chapter 6 – Learning Learning: a relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience -includes the acquisition of knowledge and skills -also shapes personal habits, personality traits, emotional responses, and personal preferences -most behaviour is the result of learning -not exclusively a human process – many organisms can learn Conditioning: involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism‟s environment Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus -first described by Ivan Pavlov ( aka Pavlovian conditioning) Phobias: are irrational fears of specific objects or situations. Pavlov‟s Demonstration: „Psychic Reflexes‟ -partly accidental discovery -first he presented meat powder to the dogs, and collected their saliva -found that they started salivation before the meat powder was presented -they would salivate in response to a clicking sound the machine made by the machine that was used to present the meat powder -so he decided to pair the meat powder w/ various stimuli -used a tone -after the tone and meat powder had been presented together a number of times, the tone was presented alone -the dogs salivated to the tone alone -tone started out as a neutral stimulus -Pavlov changed it by pairing it with a stimulus that produced a response -this demonstrated how learned associations were formed by events in an organism‟s environment Terminology and Procedures Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response w/o previous conditioning Unconditioned Response (UCR): an unlearned reaction to an UCS that occurs w/o previous conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR): a learned reaction to a CS that occurs b/c of previous conditioning -the unconditioned response and conditioned response often consist of the same behaviour -may be subtle differences between them -Pavlov‟s psychic reflex came to be called the conditioned reflex Trial: in classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli Classically conditioned responses have traditionally been characterized as reflexes and are said to be elicited (drawn forth). Step 1: An unconditioned stimulus (US or UCS) is one that evokes a natural response, one that required no previous conditioning i.e., an unconditioned response (UR or UCR). Step 2: Pair a neutral stimulus (one that doesn‟t elicit a response, a NS) with the US. Sometimes several pairings will be necessary, however, with extreme situations one-time learning is possible (e.g., touching a hot stove). Step 3: After the pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes able to evoke the response, so, the NS becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the UR becomes the conditioned response (CR). It‟s the same response, but now elicited by a different stimulus. Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life -classical conditioning often plays a role in shaping emotional responses such as fear -ex. Phobias Conditioning and Physiological Responses -the functioning of the immune system can be influenced by psychological factors including conditioning -classical conditioning procedures can lead to immunosuppression -classical conditioning can also elicit allergic reaction -also contributes to the growth of drug tolerance and the experience of withdrawal symptoms -can also influence sexual arousal -may also underlie the developments of fetishes for inanimate objects Conditioning and Drug Effects Drug tolerance: involves a gradual decline in responsiveness to a drug w/ repeated use -larger and larger doses are required to attain the user‟s effects -stimuli that are always paired w/ drug use can acquire the capacity to elicit conditioned responses -sometimes, the CR are physiological responses that are opposite of the normal effects of the drugs -called compensatory CRs: they partially compensate for some drug effects -this can produce tolerance Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning Acquisition: Forming New Responses Acquisition: the initial stage of learning something -acquisition of a CR depends on stimulus contiguity -stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in the same time and space -it is important, but it doesn‟t automatically produce conditioning -stimuli that are novel, unusual, or especially intense have more potential to become CSs -b/c they are more likely to stand out among other stimuli Extinction: Weakening Conditioned Responses Extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of conditioned response tendency -the consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone, w/o the unconditioned stimulus leads to extinction in classical conditioning -how long it takes depends mainly on the strength of the conditioned bond when extinction begins Spontaneous Recovery: Resurrecting Responses -some responses can be recovered after having been extinguished Spontaneous Recovery: the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus -if a response is extinguished in a different enviro than it was acquired, it will reappear if the animal is returned to the original enviro -called the renewal effect -extinction doesn‟t appear to lead to unlearning -extinction suppresses a conditioned response, it doesn‟t erase a learned association Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Generalization: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus -generalization is adaptive, b/c organisms rarely encounter the exact same stimulus more than once -the likelihood and amount of generalization to a new stimulus depends on the similarity between the new stimulus and the original CS -the more similar, the greater the generalization -can be mapped out in graphs called generalization gradients Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus Discrimination: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus doesn‟t respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus -the opposite of stimulus generalization -the less similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the likelihood (and ease) of discrimination -organisms can gradually learn to discriminate between an original CS and a similar stimuli if they have adequate experience w/ both Higher-Order Conditioning Higher Order Conditioning: a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus -new conditioned responses are built on the foundation of already established conditioned responses Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning: a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences Thorndike‟s Law of Effect -aka instrumental learning Law of Effect: if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened -a mechanical process in which successful responses are gradually s „stamped in‟ by their favourable effects -the cornerstone of Skinner‟s theory Skinner‟s Demonstration: It‟s All a Matter of Consequences Reinforcement: occurs when an event following a response increases an organism‟s tendency to make that response -a response is strengthened b/c it leads to rewarding consequences Terminology and Procedures Operant Chamber (Skinner box) a small enclosure in which an animal can bake a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled Reinforcement Contingencies: the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers The cumulative recorder crates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of time. Rapid response produced a steep slope whereas a slow response rate produces a shallow slope. Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning Acquisition and Shaping Acquisition: the initial stage of learning some new pattern of responding Shaping: the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response -necessary when an organism on its own doesn‟t emit the desired response Extinction -refers to the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency b/c the response is no longer followed by a reinforcer -a key issue in operant conditioning is how much resistance to extinction an organism has Resistance to Extinction: occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been stopped -the greater resistance to extinction, the longer the responding will continue Resistance to extinction depends on a variety of factors, like schedule of reinforcement used during acquisition. Stimulus Control: Generalization and Discrimination -operant responding is ultimately controlled by its consequences, as organisms learn response-outcome associations -but, stimuli that precede a response can also exert influence over operant behaviour Discriminative Stimuli: cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences of a response -play a key role in operant behaviour -reactions to a discriminative stimulus are governed by stimulus generalization and discrimination Process Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Acquisition: the initial stage of -CS and UCS are paired, -responding gradually increases learning gradually resulting in CR b/c of reinforcement, possibly through shaping Extinction: the gradual -CS is presented alone until it no -responding gradually slows and weakening and disappearance of longer elicits CR stops after reinforcement is a conditioned response tendency terminated Stimulus Generalization: an -CR is elicited by new stimulus -responding increases in the organism‟s responding to stimuli that resembles original CS presence of new stimulus that other than the original stimulus resembles discriminative used in conditioning stimulus Stimulus Discrimination: an -CR is not elicited by new -responding doesn‟t increase in organism‟s response to stimuli stimulus that resembles original the lack of presence of new that are similar to the original CS stimulus that resembles the stimulus used in conditioning original discriminative stimulus Reinforcement: Consequences That Strengthen Responses -Skinner said that reinforcement occurs whenever an outcome strengthens a response, as measured by an increase in the rate of responding -reinforcement is defined after the fact, in terms of its effect on behaviour Primary Reinforcers: events that are inherently reinforcing b/c they satisfy biological needs -ex. food, water, warmth, sex, affection Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcers: events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers -ex. money, good grades, attention, flattery, praise Schedules of Reinforcement Schedule of Reinforcement: determines which occurrence of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer -simplest pattern is continuous Continuous Reinforcement: occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced Intermittent/Partial Reinforcement: occurs when a designated response is reinforced only sometimes -makes a response more resistant to extinction than continuous -there are 4 types intermittent schedules: -Fixed-Ratio Schedule: the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses -Variable-Ratio Schedule: the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses -Fixed-Interval Schedule: the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed -Variable-Interval Schedule: the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed -in general, ratio schedules usually produce more rapid responding than interval schedules -b/c faster responding leads to reinforcement sooner -variable schedules tend to generate steadier response rates and greater resistance to extinction than fixed schedules Positive Reinforcement Vs. Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: occurs when a response is strengthened b/c it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus -ex. good grades, tasty meals, paycheques, promotions etc. Negative Reinforcement: occurs when a response is strengthened b/c it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus -this strengthening takes place b/c a response leads to the removal of an aversive stimulus Negative Reinforcement and Avoidance Behaviour Escape Learning: an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation Avoidance Learning: an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring -ex. rat sees light turn on before shock, and knows to run into the other room Punishment: Consequences That Weaken Responses Punishment: occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response -typically involves presentation of an aversive stimulus -ex. spanking a child -but it may also involve the removal of a rewarding stimulus -ex. taking away a video game -punishment occurs any time that undesirable consequences weaken a response tendency Side Effects of Physical Punishment -corporal punishment produces many unintended and undesirable side effects -associated w/ bad parent-child relationships, elevated aggression, delinquency, and behavioural problems -here are some ways to make punishment more effective, and reduce side effects: 1. Apply punishment swiftly 2. Use punishment just severe enough to be effective 3. Make punishment consistent 4. Explain the punishment 5. Use non-corporal punishments, such as withdrawal of privileges Changing Directions in the Study of Conditioning Recognizing Biological Constraints on Conditioning Instinctive Drift: The Case of the Miserly Racoons Instinctive Drift: occurs when an animal‟s innate response tendencies interfere w/ conditioning processes -ex. associating the coins w/ food had brought out the racoons‟ innate food-washing behaviour Conditioned Taste Aversion: The “Sauce Bearnaise Syndrome” -many people develop aversions to food that has been followed by nausea from illness, alcohol, or food poisoning -appeared to be the result of classical conditioning -but, there was a delay between the CS and UCS, so it should have prevented conditioning -it is argued that this is a byproduct of the evolutionary history of mammals -animals that consume poisonous foods and survive must learn not to repeat their mistakes -natural selection will favour these animals who learn what not to eat -so evolution has programmed some organisms to learn certain types of associations more easily than others Preparedness and Phobias Preparedness: involves a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others -evolution has programmed organisms to acquire certain fears more readily than others -can explain why certain phobias are way more common than others -evolutionary forces gradually programmed humans to acquire conditioned fears of things like snakes, spiders, heights, easily and rapidly b/c they were threats to our ancestors Arbitrary Vs. Ecological Conditioned Stimulus -some argue that taste aversion learning is not all that unique -it‟s just one example of what happens when ecologically relevant conditioned stimulus are studied, as opposed to arbitrary, neutral stimuli -usually, conditioned stimuli tend to have natural relationships to the unconditioned stimuli that they predict -says that researchers should shift their focus to ecologically relevant conditioned stimuli, which may yield somewhat different patterns of learning Evolutionary Perspectives on Learning -the basic mechanisms of learning are similar across species but they have sometimes been modified in the course of evolution as species have adapted to the specialized demands of their enviro Recognizing Cognitive Processes in Conditioning -Tolman suggested that cognitive processes play a role in conditioning -recently, research findings have led theorists to shift toward more cognitive explanations of conditioning Signal Relations -Robert Rescorla says that environmental stimuli serve as signals and that some stimuli are better, or more dependable, signals than others Response-Outcome Relations and Reinforcement -studies of response-outcome relations and reinforcement also highlight the role of cognitive processes -reinforcement is not automatic when favourable consequences follow a response -people actively reason out the relationships between responses and the outcomes that follow Observational Learning-albert bandura Observational Learning: occurs when an organism‟s responding is influenced by the observation of others, called models -involves being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing another‟s conditioning -not an entirely different learning process -observational learning acts along with operant and classical conditioning Basic Processes -there are 4 key processes that are crucial in observational learning 1. Attention – you must pay attention to another‟s behaviour and its consequences 2. Retention – you must store a mental representation in your memory 3. Reproduction – enacting a modelled response depends on your ability to reproduce the response by converting your mental image into overt behaviour 4. Motivation – depends on whether you encounter a situation where you believe that response will pay off for you -observational is especially valuable in explaining complex human behaviours -but animals can also learn this way Acquisition Vs. Performance -people have many learned responses that they may or may not perform, depending on the situation -reinforcement affects which responses are actually performed more than which responses are acquired -people emit the responses that they think are likely to be reinforced -reinforcement influences performance rather than learning per se Observational Learning and the Media Violence Controversy -the power of observational learning makes TV such an influential determinant of behaviour -children are very impressionable, and extensive evidence indicates that they pick up many responses from viewing models on TV Observational Learning and the Brain: Mirror Neurons Mirror Neurons: neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action -the operation of mirror neurons and related structures and processes of the brain may underlie imitation and observational learning Chapter 7 – Human Memory Encoding: involves forming a memory code Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores Encoding: Getting Information into Memory The Role of Attention -you generally need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember it Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events -attention is like a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness -but where is the filter located? -are stimuli screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the brain has processed it -the cocktail party effect suggests it is after the brain has processed it -people can overhear their own name, even when „not listening‟ to the conversation -studies have found evidence for both as well as for intermediate selection -the filter may be flexible rather than fixed -it is clear that people have difficulty if they attempt to focus their attention on two or more inputs simultaneously -large reduction in memory performance is seen -the human brain can only effectively handle one attention-consuming task at a time -when people multitask, they are really switching their attention back and forth amongst tasks, rather than processing them simultaneously Levels of Processing -differences in how people attend to info are the main factors influencing how much they remember Levels-of-Processing Theory: proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes -semantic encoding is the deepest, and emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Level of Processing Type of encoding Shallow processing Structural encoding: emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus Intermediate processing Phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word sounds like Deep processing Semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Enriching Encoding Elaboration Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding -semantic encoding can often be enhanced through elaboration -often consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea Visual Imagery -imagery can also be used to enrich encoding -it is easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts Dual-Coding Theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall Self-Referent Encoding -making material personally meaningful can also enrich encoding Self-Referent Encoding: involves deciding how or whether info is personally relevant -enhances recall by promoting additional elaboration and better organization of information Ia. Encoding Attention and Processing  We need to pay attention to something in order to remember it. Given the amount of stimuli we are exposed to on a second by second basis, we need to attend to some (a conversation) but not others (the light waves affecting the shadows in the room, the sound waves affecting the background noise of the conversation, etc.). Thus, we need selective attention. How much attention is paid and when it is paid parallels the levels of processing, so notice how I‟ve combined these two sections of your text, using the figure as a guide (And later, you‟ll realize why I‟ve done this, namely to enhance your organization strategies, which is a memory strategy).  We may use selective attention early, during the process of sensation, before the brain has had a chance to process meaning. At this level, we are performing structural encoding (or shallow processing). This is where we process visual/physical stimuli (e.g., what letters look like; angles; shading). We also perform phonemic encoding (an intermediate level of processing), which is what the stimuli sound like (or if it is visual stimuli, then we‟d recognize an object such as a car). This kind of attention may occur during tasks that require a high cognitive load (e.g., a new task).  We may use selective attention later, after the brain has processed meaning. This is evidenced in listening to two different conversations where we are dividing our attention between two meaningful things. Note, this is Divided Attention: we cannot selectively attend to two things at once; we have to shift back and forth between the two conversations. And when we do, our performance decreases. This kind of attention may occur during tasks that require lower cognitive loads. If a task isn‟t difficult, we can afford to filter out information later after meaning has been processed. At this point, deeper processing is involved (Semantic Encoding) where we recognize what a word means, and its associations with a category (e.g., we may recognize a car, and how it symbolizes freedom). The deeper the processing, the better the memory. Ib. Enhancing Encoding  Elaboration (linking the stimulus to other information) is required for good memory. This involves strategies like using examples (which is why I use different examples than are used in your text; the more examples you can generate, the better your elaboration, and therefore, memory). Mnemonics are also a good form of elaboration. For those of you who play piano, you‟ll likely never forget the notes if you used “every good boy deserves fudge,” or e g b d f. By using this strategy we make the information more distinct and therefore easier to retrieve when needed.  Visual imagery also helps because it provides dual coding (words and pictures), which is why I include a lot of figures in my lectures. Flow charts are also a good example of visual imagery; they help to link items together. If you‟ve ever been a food server you know a good way to remember the orders is to picture them eating what they‟ve ordered.  Self-Referent Encoding: if the examples you generate are personal, the information is more relevant to you and therefore easier to retrieve.  Organization. By organizing information, you chunk large pieces of information into smaller bits. This incorporates dual coding because your organization could make use of words and pictures, or words and charts, or words and self-reference encoding (if you organize information into a personal story). Remember, this is what I did for you in the Attention/Processing section. Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory Sensory Memory Sensory Memory: preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second -allows the sensation to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over -this gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli Short-Term Memory Short-Term Memory: a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds Rehearsal: the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information -this is how you can maintain info in your short-term memory Durability of Storage -w/o rehearsal, info in short-term memory is lost in less than 20 seconds -loss of info from short-term memory is due to time-related decay of memory traces, as well as from interference from competing material Capacity of Storage -short-term memory is limited in the number of items it can hold -it can only hold 5-9 (7+/-2) Chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit -you can increase the capacity of your STM by combining stimuli into chunks Short-Term Memory as „Working Memory‟ -studies showed that STM is not limited to phonemic encoding as originally thought and that decay isn‟t the only process responsible for the loss of info from STM -so the „working memory‟ was proposed -consists of 4 components: -the phonological loop: represented all of STM in the earlier models -visuospatial sketchpad: temporarily holds visual images -central executive system: controls attention, switching focus and dividing attention -episodic buffer: a limited-capacity store that allows the components of working memory to integrate info and serves as a buffer between short-term and long-term memory Long-Term Memory Long-Term Memory: an unlimited capacity store that can hold info over lengthy periods of time -storage may be permanent, and forgetting may only occur b/c people can‟t retrieve the info Flashbulb Memories: unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events -they are usually not accurate -so there is no evidence that memories are stored permanently  Permanency of Long term memory (LTM): Long term memories only last as well as you encoded them. They last better if you encoded them gradually versus trying to encode them in an all- nighter, and if you succeeded in encoding them.  LTM is well organized, which helps you to remember. It is used with conceptual hierarchies (see Figure 7.10 on page 295), schemas and semantic networks. Schemas organize information like file folders; all your information and expectations about a concept are stored together. Semantic networks can be likened to neural networks; a set of connections between concepts based on your experiences. Are Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Separate? -some people view STM as a tiny constantly changing portion of LTM that happens to be in a heightened state of activation -but right now, the separation of STM and LTM remains dominant How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? -our mental representations probably take a variety of forms, depending on the nature of the material that needs to be inputted in memory Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies -people spontaneously organize info into categories for storage in memory Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups Conceptual Hierarchy: a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items -organizing info into a conceptual hierarchy can improve recall dramatically Schemas Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience w/ the object or event -suggests that people are more likely to remember things that are consistent w/ their schemas than things that aren‟t -but also, people sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schemas -relational schemas affect the way you process info about others and yourself, and influence your expectations and beliefs about yourself Semantic Networks Semantic Network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts -not all info fits neatly into conceptual hierarchies or schemas -so it is organized into this less systematic framework -words that are closely linked to each other should be easier to recall than words that have longer links Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models -take their inspiration from how neural networks appear to handle info -instead of how computers process -the human brain depends extensively on parallel distributed processing -simultaneous processing of the same info that is spread across networks of neurons Connectionist/PDP Models: assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks -a PDP system consists of a large network of interconnected nodes that operate like neurons -PDP models assert that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks -specific nodes represent specific concepts/pieces of knowledge Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory Using Cues to Aid Retrieval Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon: the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it‟s just out of reach -memories can often be jogged with retrieval cues: stimuli that help gain access to memories Reinstating the Context of an Event -encoding specificity principle: your memory for info would be better when the conditions during encoding and retrieval were similar -context cues often facilitate the retrieval of info -the effects of matching the person‟s internal state of encoding at the retrieval phase is a special case of encoding specificity principle Reconstructing Memories and the Misinformation Effect -your memories may be distorted and may include details that did not actually occur -based on schemas -the misinformation effect: occurs when participants‟ recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event information -frequently show up in eyewitness testimony Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring Source Monitoring: the process of making attributions about the origins of memory -memories aren‟t tagged w/ labels that specify their sources -so people have to make decision at the time of retrieval about where they came from -usually w/o being consciously aware of it Source-Monitoring Error: occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Reality Monitoring: refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one‟s perception of actual events) or internal sources (one‟s thoughts and imaginations) III. Retrieval  It‟s all well and good to store the information, but you also have to be able to retrieve the information (e.g., you‟re in the exam, know you‟ve studied a concept, but can‟t retrieve it in order to properly answer a questions). We all need retrieval cues, which are stimuli that help us access the memories.  Encoding Specificity: to optimize retrieval you can mimic the conditions in which you encoded it. For example a big cue is the context or environment in which you encoded the information, which is why lawyers try to get eyewitnesses to imagine themselves back in the situation. So when you‟re writing exams, try to visualize your study environment. State/mood cues are also important, so it‟s helpful to be in the same state of mind when you‟re retrieving information as when you were encoding it (which is why trying to relax in an exam is so important rather than letting yourself get stressed).  Reconstructed Memories: Memories are not as accurate as we think they are. Even the memories we believe are so vivid (flashbulb memories) decrease in accuracy over time. In fact, we tend to reconstruct memories to fit with our schemas (expectations). Turn now to the memory demonstration: Forgetting: When Memory Lapses -sometimes, forgetting is actually adaptive -we sometimes need to discard old info that is no longer relevant -it can reduce competition among memories that can cause confusion How Quickly We Forget: Ebbinghaus‟s Forgetting Curve Forgetting Curve: graphs retention and forgetting over time -most forgetting occurs very rapidly after learning something Measures of Forgetting Retention: refers to the proportion of material retained (remembered) -retention interval – the length of time between the presentation of materials to be remembered and the measurement of forgetting Recall: a measure of retention that requires the subject to reproduce info on their own w/o any cues Recognition: a measure of retention that requires subjects to select previously learned info from an array of options -have cues to work with, and the answer is right in front of them Relearning: a measure of retention that requires a subject to memorize info a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before -can detect retention that is overlooked by recognition tests Why We Forget Ineffective Encoding -a large amount of forgetting may only appear to be forgetting -the info may have never been inserted into memory in the first place -called pseudoforgetting -this is usually due to lack of attention -even when memory codes are formed for new info, forgetting may be due to ineffective or inappropriate encoding Decay Decay Theory: proposes that forgetting occurs b/c memory traces fade w/ time -decay occurs in the physiological mechanisms responsible for memories -decay does contribute to the loss of info from the STM -BUT, not for LTM forgetting -in LTM, forgetting doesn‟t depend on the time passing, but on the amount, complexity, and type of info that subjects have to assimilate during the retention interval -the negative impact of competing info on retention is interference Interference Interference Theory: proposes that people forget info b/c of competition from other material -interference is the greatest when intervening material is most similar to the test material -decreasing the similarity should reduce interference, and cause less forgetting Retroactive Interference: occurs when new info impairs the retention of previously learned info -occurs between the original learning and the retest on that learning, during the retention interval Proactive Interference: occurs when previously learned info interferes w/ the retention of new info -rooted in learning that comes before exposure to test material Retrieval Failure -a lot of forgetting may be due to breakdowns in the process of retrieval -retrieval failures may be more likely when a mismatch occurs between retrieval cues and the encoding of the info you‟re searching for Encoding Specificity Principle: states that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code Transfer-Appropriate Processing: occurs when the initial processing of info is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention -retrieval failures are more likely when there is a poor fit between the processing done during encoding and the processing invoked by the measure of retention Motivated Forgetting -Freud asserted that people often keep embarrassing, unpleasant, or painful memories buried in their unconscious Motivated Forgetting/Repression: keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious The Repressed Memories Controversy Support for Recovered Memories -many psychologists accept recovered memories of abuse at face value -these people attribute the upsurge in recovered memories to therapists‟ and clients‟ increased sensitivity to an issue that people used to be reluctant to discuss Skepticism Regarding Recovered Memories -many other psychologists, especially researchers, have expressed skepticism about the upsurge of recovered memories of abuse -say that some suggestible people w/ emotional problems have been convinced by persuasive therapists that their emotional problems must have been due to repressed memories IV. Forgetting  We measure forgetting using recall, which is the reproduction of information without cues (e.g., essay exams) and recognition from a set of cues (e.g., multiple choice exams).  Forgetting can occur at all the stages we‟ve already learned: if we have ineffective encoding (e.g., lack of attention, divided attention, low level processing), if there is interference with the information going in (e.g., proactive or retroactive interference), and when we can‟t retrieve the information (e.g., the encoding and retrieval cues differ).  Repression of memories is a motivated forgetting, i.e., intentionally keeping distressing thoughts in the unconscious. While Freud certainly provided a theoretical basis for this (remember Freud from PS101), it is a controversial topic. Evidence for the existence of repression includes the amnesia for events that people report. For example, 38% of sexually abused kids brought to the emergency room didn‟t recall that event 17 years later. Evidence against the existence of repression includes false memories (ie., how we can lead people to believe they remember something they didn‟t experience), the fact that hypnosis (the tool that some claim can be used to extract repressed memories) actually impairs recall versus enhances it, and the fact that memories before 3 yrs of age are not real; the earliest memory of a child is usually around 5 yrs of age. Moreover, most abused people remember parts of the abuse throughout their life rather than repressing the event entirely. In Search of the Memory Trace: They Physiology of Memory The Biochemistry of Memory -memory formation may result in alterations in synaptic transmission at specific sites -specific memories depend on biochemical changes that occur at specific synapses -manipulations that alter hormone levels shortly after an organism has learned a new response can affect memory storage in a variety of animals -can facilitate or impair memory, depending on the hormone and the amount of change -may be b/c hormones modulate activity in the amygdala and other neurotransmitter system in the brain The Neural Circuitry of Memory -specific memories may depend on localized neural circuits in the brain -memories may create unique, reusable pathways in the brain along which signals flow Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): a long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway -LTP appears to involve changes in both presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons in neural circuits in the hippocampus -neurogenesis may also contribute to the sculpting of neural circuits that underlie memory The Anatomy of Memory Retrograde Amnesia: involves the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to onset of amnesia Anterograde Amnesia: involves the loss of memories for events that occur after onset of amnesia Consolidation: a hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of info into durable memory codes stored in LTM -the hippocampal region plays a key role in the consolidation of memory -memories are then stored in diverse and widely distributed areas of the cortex -the amygdala seems to be critical to the formation of memories for learned fears -the central executive component of working memory may be localized in the prefrontal cortex Systems and Types of Memory Implicit Vs. Explicit Memory Implicit Memory: apparent when retention is exhibited on a task that doesn‟t require intentional remembering -incidental, unintentional remembering Explicit Memory: involves intentional recollection of previous experiences -explicit memory is conscious, is accessed directly, and can be best assessed w/ recall or recognition -implicit memory is unconscious, must be accessed indirectly, and can be best assessed w/ variations on relearning -some theorists think these differences are found b/c implicit and explicit memory rely on different cognitive processes in encoding and retrieval -or b/c they are handled by independent memory systems -referred to as declarative and procedural memory Declarative Vs. Procedural Memory Declarative Memory System: handles factual information -contains recollections of words, definitions, names, dates, faces etc. Procedural/Nondeclarative Memory System: houses memory for actions, skills, operations, and conditioned responses -procedural memory system may handle implicit remembering, while the declarative memory system handles explicit remembering -declarative memory appears to be handled by the hippocampal complex Semantic Vs. Episodic Memory Episodic Memory System: made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences Semantic Memory System: contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned -your „encyclopedia‟ V. Biology of Memory  When an animal learns a new skill, retention is associated with changes in neurotransmitters, but it is only a temporary change. For long-term change, we see new neural networks and receiving neurons becoming more sensitive (i.e., they open up more to permit more flow of neurotransmitters).  Although there is no one place where memories are stored (they are stored throughout the brain), the hippocampal region is what is affected in patients of anterograde amnesia. The hippocampus is also important in binding memories together. The amygdala plays a role in learned fear, and the pre-frontal cortex plays a role in the perceived timing of memories and the STM. Prospective Vs. Retrospective Memory Prospective Memory: involves remembering to perform actions in the future Retrospective Memory: involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information -age appears to a factor that influences the functioning of prospective memory Chapter 8 – Language and Thought Language: Turning Thoughts into Words What is Language? Language: consists of symbols that convey meaning, and rules for combining those symbols that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages -language is symbolic, semantic, generative, and structured The Structure of Language Phonemes -the smallest units of speech that can be distinguished perceptually -English uses about 40 phonemes Morphemes and Semantics Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning in a language -approx. 50 000 in English Semantics: the area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combos Syntax Syntax: a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences  Language is symbolic: it is a set of sounds and words (symbols) that represents things. For example, the sound of a bell symbolizes the beginning and end of the school day; the sound “tsk tsk” represents shame. Words, which come to be combinations of those sounds, are also symbols that represent things. For example, the word dog represents a furry pet that gives unconditional love.  In turn, symbols convey meaning i.e., semantics are concerned with how words convey meaning. You‟ve probably heard the phrase, “it‟s all just semantics”. This phrase is often said to when someone gets caught using the wrong word and they want to justify themselves by minimizing the impact of words on meaning, as if each word doesn‟t have a particular function, but indeed they do.  Because we can combine the symbols in an unlimited way, to create new meaning, language is said to be „generative‟ in that it generates new meaning.  There is a structure to language. The smallest unit of sound that can be distinguished is called a Phoneme, e.g., „p‟ in pansy or „ng‟ in sting. So, some individual levels are phonemes but some can be combined to generate new sounds. The smallest unit of sound that has meaning is a Morpheme (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, articles like “un”, “able” or “the”. Even some words that are one syllable like „think‟ can be a morpheme. Words that aren‟t just morphemes can be generated by combining morphemes: “unrealistic”. They have a denotation (a dictionary definition) and a connotation (the word‟s overtones or implications. For example the denotation of unrealistic is „not realistic‟. The connotation of someone who is unrealistic is a negative one. Finally, we can create new meanings by combining words into phrases and sentences, and the rules for these combinations are called „syntax‟ i.e., grammar. Milestones in Language Development Moving Towards Producing Words -before 3 months, infants can distinguish all the phonemes in the world -even the ones they have never heard in their environment -some language acquisition maybe developed by listening in utero -babbling gradually becomes more complex and more like the parent‟s language -lasts until about 18 months, even after child has started saying real words PRIMIR: Processing Rich Information from Multidimensional Interactive Representations Language Development Age Characteristics Months 1-5 Reflexive Communication: vocalizes randomly, coos, laughs, cries, engages in vocal play, discriminates language from nonlanguage sounds 6-18 Babbling: verbalizes in response to the speech of others; responses increasingly approximate human speech patterns 10-13 First words: uses words, typically to refer to objects 12-18 One-word Sentence stage: vocabulary grows slowly; uses mostly nouns; overextensions begin 18-24 Vocabulary spurt: fast mapping facilitates rapid acquisition of new words Years 2 Two-word Sentence stage: uses telegraphic speech; uses more pronouns and verbs 2.5 Three-word Sentence stage: modifies speech to take listener into account; overregularizations begin 3 Uses complete simple active sentence structure; uses sentences to tell stories that are understood by others; uses plurals 3.5 Expanded grammatical forms: expresses concepts with words; uses four-word sentence 4 Uses five-word sentences 5 Well-developed and complex syntax: uses more complex syntax; uses more complex forms to tell stories 6 Displays metalinguistic awareness Using Words -at around 10-13 months, babies begin to utter sounds that correspond to words -the initial words resemble the syllables that they babbled the most -although their vocabulary grows slowly, they can comprehend more words spoken by others than they can actually produce Fast Mapping: the process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure Overextension: occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects/actions than it is meant to -ex. when a child uses the word ball for everything that‟s round Underextensions: occur when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than is meant to Ex. when a child uses the word doll for only one toy, not all dolls -overextensions and underextensions show that toddlers are actively trying to learn the rules of language Combining Words Telegraphic Speech: consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions and other less critical words are omitted -but it is not cross-culturally universal Overregularizations: occur when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they don‟t apply -ex. “I hitted the ball” Refining Language Skills Metalinguistic Awareness: the ability to reflect on the use of language -happens when children are school-age -between 6 and 8, children are able to appreciate irony and sarcasm  Initial stage: Babies begin to learn language with various tools. “Parenteese” is practiced by parents; it‟s a higher pitch exaggerated tone that helps to teach the rhythm of language. This helps to develop the baby‟s vocalizations (cooing, laughing, crying). During this stage babies recognize all phonemes, even those not common to their own language (e.g., “la” and “ra” are both recognized by Japanese babies but not by adults). This suggests there is an optimal period for bilingualism. While bilingualism is learned easier at an earlier age, that‟s not to say we can‟t learn more languages later. For example, the more acculturated an immigrant becomes the easier it is to learn the new language; the more motivated you are the easier it is to learn a new language, and the more positive your attitude is toward a new language, the easier it is to learn.  Next stage: Babbling (“babaaababababa”, “daadadada”) occurs. The question has been why babbling occurs. Some say it‟s a maturing physical capacity; our vocal capacity is growing, as is control of lips and throat, and babies are simply testing it out. Others argue it represents a maturing language capacity. Interestingly, deaf babies manually babble (i.e., babble with their hands); this suggests that babbling represents maturing language, because if it were simply about maturing vocalizations, deaf babies who do not vocalize would not babble.  Next stage: Some time around 10 months/1 year kids begin to recognize words (they listen longer to unfamiliar words, suggesting they are familiar with the words they don‟t listen long to), and they use symbolic gesturing (e.g., shrugging shoulders, pointing). Around 18-24 months, babies have a vocabulary spurt, whereby their words grow exponentially. The mistakes they make indicate they are trying to learn the rules of grammar. For example, they use overextensions (applying a word to a wider category than it should be), e.g., a “doggie” refers to all pets, or underextensions where “cat” refers to only the family cat.  Next stage: Telegraphic speech (whereby 2-3 word combinations are created) uses only the most necessary words to convey meaning (“Daddy milk”, “go bye bye”, “no night night”). Mistakes made now include overregularizations (over-applying grammar rules). For example, the suffix “ed,” which implies past tense is improperly applied to everything (“I goed to the zoo”).  Next stage: At around 6 years old, kids begin to have metalinguistic awareness (an awareness of how language works). Then, they know they‟re making mistakes, tend understand sarcastic humour and that some sentences can have two different meanings. Learning More than One Language: Bilingualism Bilingualism: the acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary, and grammar Does Learning Two Languages in Childhood Slow Down Language Development? -children can differentiate between their parents 2 languages even before they can speak -research shows that children that are bilingual acquire language at the same rate as others Does Bilingualism Affect Cognitive Processes and Skills? -bilingualism conveys some cognitive advantages -may have a disadvantage in raw processing speed What Factors Influence the Acquisition of a Second Language? -the younger you learn a second language, the better you acquire it -learning language is more effective before age 7, and up to age 15 -older children and adults can become proficient in a second language, but only a small amount become as proficient as native speakers Acculturation: the degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture -affects the acquisition of a second language -greater acculturation means greater acquisition of the language Issues in Bilingualism Cons:  Some evidence suggests that bilinguals have a slight disadvantage in language speed (but this seems to be the only disadvantage!).  When bilingualism is forced (e.g., First Nations people being forced to speak only English) self-esteem decreases as does heritage language proficiency. Pros:  The rate at which languages is developed, and the stages themselves are the same for bi- and monolinguals.  Bilinguals have enhanced literacy.  Bilinguals have better selective attention and controlled processing (e.g., reading comprehension).  Bilinguals have less age-related loss in cognitive skill.  Bilinguals have more grey brain matter (i.e.,neural connections) and better language organization in the brain. Can Animals Develop Language? -Chimpanzees, and other great apes, have a similar region in their brain to human Broca‟s area, for language production -some can learn language (Washoe, Kanzi), but only equivalent to a human toddler -PET scan- chimps have an analogous area in left hemisphere… Language in an Evolutionary Context -human‟s talent for language is a species-specific trait that is the product of natural selection Theories of Language Acquisition Behaviourist Theories -argue that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, and other conditioning principles Nativist Theories -Chomsky argued that children learn the rules of language, not specific verbal responses, like Skinner said Language Acquisition Device (LAD): an innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language -nativist theory proposes that humans are equipped with this Interactionist Theories -argue that biology and experience are both important for language acquisition -cognitive theories assert that language development is an important aspect of more general cognitive development -social communication theories emphasize the functional value of interpersonal communication and the social context in which language evolves -Emergentist theories argue that the neural circuits supporting language aren‟t prewired but emerge gradually in response to language learning experiences Theories of Language Acquisition  Behaviourism: Language may be classically conditioned through positive associations with vocalization (e.g., when I cry and get my diaper changed, I feel better, so I will cry again!), or through operant conditioning whereby parents reward language use (“good job using your words!”). Indeed, that‟s how animal language is learned, through positive associations and reinforcements.  Nativist Theories: Chomsky argues language is innate, not learned. His evidence for this involves the notion that the language mistakes kids make are not observed (adults do not say, “I goed there”). He argues that parents reward all speech, both accuracies and inaccuracies, but that kids ultimately speak correctly, so there must be an „innate language device.‟  Interactionist Theories: these theories suggest that we are biologically equipped to learn language, i.e., a combination of nature and nurture. Culture, Language and Thought Linguistic Relativity: the hypothesis that one‟s language determines the nature of one‟s thought -different languages lead people to view the world differently The Whorf hypothesis (or Linguistic relativity or determinism) suggests that language determines thought (if we don‟t have a word for something, how do we think about it?). Some research suggests that it‟s our language that determines our thought processing. For example, English words for time are linear (“good times are ahead of us”, “move my meeting forward”, “push back the deadline”), whereas in Mandarin Chinese words for time are vertical (earlier events are „up‟; later events are „down‟). So researchers have used this to see how language for time affects thinking about time. If language affects how we think, then Mandarin speakers should process information about time easier if they are primed to think about time in their natural linguistic way. If language doesn‟t affect how we think, then they should process information about time in the same way, regardless of how they are primed to think about it. The reverse should be true for English speakers. Researchers exposed Mandarin and English speakers to both spatial primes that were vertical (three dots on top of each other) or spatial primes that were horizontal (three dots beside each other). In other words, they were being primed to think in ways that was consistent with their language or inconsistent (For English: the horizontal primes were consistent; for Mandarin: the vertical primes were consistent). Then were asked to answer questions about time (“Is March earlier than April?” “Is Friday after Thursday”). Mandarin speakers were faster to confirm March is earlier than April if they‟d seen vertical primes than if they‟d seen horizontal ones. In other words, it was easier to process information about time if they were thinking in terms that were consistent with their native language; language was affecting thought. The reverse pattern was true for English speakers. affects thought, we should expect cultural differences in thought. Indeed, there are: Eastern cultures have a collective view of self, where they see the total instead of the parts (field dependence) whereas Western cultures have an independent view of the self. Problem Solving: In Search of Solutions Types of Problems Problem Solving: active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable -problems can be categorized into 3 basic classes: 1. Problems of inducing structure -require people to discover the relationships among numbers, words, symbols or ideas 2. Problems of arrangement -require people to arrange the parts of a problem in a way that satisfies some criteria 3. Problems of transformation -require people to carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a goal Barriers to Effective Problem Solving Irrelevant Information -people often incorrectly assume that all of the numerical information in a problem is necessary to solve it -you need to figure out what info is relevant and what is irrelevant before proceeding Functional Fixedness -the tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use Mental Set -exists when people persist in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past -may explain why having expertise in an area sometimes backfires and hampers problem solving Unnecessary Constraints -effective problem solving requires specifying all the constraints governing a problem w/o assuming any constraints that don‟t exist Approaches to Problem Solving Problem Space: the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver Using Algorithms and Heuristics Trial and Error: trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works Algorithm: a methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem -can be effective when there are relatively few solutions Heuristic: a guiding principle or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions -discard some alternatives while pursuing selected alternatives that appear more likely to lead to a solution Forming Subgoals -intermediate steps toward a solution Working Backward -if working on a problem with a specified end point, you may find the solution more readily if you begin at the end and work backward Searching for Analogies -if you can spot an analogy between problems, you may be able to use the solution to a previous problem to solve a current one Changing the Representation of the Problem -whether you solve a problem often hinges on your representation of the problem Barriers to problem solving include:  Irrelevant information. We sometimes let it distract us. For example: take a look at the multiple choice question in the Learning activities. There is a great deal of irrelevant information. Can you pick it out then tune it out in order to correctly answer the question?  Functional fixedness (thinking an item has only one function) prevents us from finding creative solutions. For example, if you wanted to make coffee but were out of filters, but had an old one in the garbage, what would you do? (hopefully, use something other than that filter, like paper towel).  Mental set (using strategies that have worked in the past) i.e., habit can get in the way of finding new ones when the old ones don‟t work. For example, I get students coming to me after having failed two midterms, asking, “What am I doing wrong”. My question back to them is, “Why am I hearing from you after the second midterm rather than after the first?” Students often respond that they were using the same study methods that worked for them in high school so they kept trying them. Of course, those techniques don‟t work for university, but their mental set got in the way of figuring out what went wrong after the first midterm.  Unnecessary constraints are when we put constraints on a problem that may not be there (see Figure 8.12 on page 347 of your text). Ways to problem solve:  Often we use trial and error, or algorithms (step by step procedures that always produce a solution, like algebra, or a recipe).  But when we don‟t have such procedures we use heuristics (shortcuts, rules of thumb), where there is no guarantee of a solution but rather they help us narrow down the possibilities o Subgoals help us do things like write papers (e.g., we choose a topic, locate research, organize information, write an outline etc. etc.). o Working backwards can help us with future problems. For example, when deciding what to take in university we need to start with our career goals and work backwards to decide on what to take now. If our career requires grad school X, we need to figure out what courses grad school requires, then make sure we have them while we‟re here at university. o Analogies can help with similar problems; we look for things in common across two problems and solve them similarly. o Changing the representation: Recall our discussion of numeric versus visual representation of data that it may be easier to see the pattern in one versus the other, depending on your preference. Culture, Cognitive Style and Problem Solving Field Dependence-Independence: refers to individuals‟ tendency to rely primarily on external vs. internal frames of reference when orienting themselves in space -people who are field dependent rely on external frames of reference and tend to accept the physical enviro as a give instead of try to analyze and try to restructure it -people who are field independent rely on internal frames of reference and tend to analyze and try to restructure the physical enviro rather than accepting it as is Decision Making: Choices and Chances Decision Making: involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them Theory of Bounded Rationality: asserts that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in „irrational‟ decisions that are less than optimal Making Choices about Preferences: Basic Strategies -the overabundance of choices in modern life has unexpected costs -people will make errors even when choosing even when there are only a couple of choices -so errors become much more likely when decisions become more complex Additive Strategy: list attributes that influence your decision -then rate desirability of each thing on each attribute -add up the ratings for each thing, and then choose the one with the highest score Elimination by Aspects: make your choice by gradually eliminating less attractive alternatives Making Choices about Preferences: Quirks and Complexities -here are some quirks and complexities that people exhibit when making decisions about preferences -their evaluations of the options‟ specific attributes fluctuate more than most models of decision making anticipated -comparative evaluations of options tend to yield different results than separate evaluations -judgements about the quality of various alternatives, such as consumer products, can be swayed by extraneous factors such as brand familiarity and price Taking Chances: Factors Weighing in Risky Decisions Risky Decision Making: involves making choices under conditions of uncertainty -subjective utility represents what an outcome is personally worth to an individual -vary from one person to another Heuristics in Judging Probability Availability Heuristic: involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind Representative Heuristic: involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event The Tendency to Ignore Base Rates -in estimating probabilities, people often ignore the information on base rates -also, people are particularly bad about applying base rates to themselves -smokers underestimate their risk of heart attack, but assess another smoker‟s as high The Conjunction
More Less

Related notes for PS102

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.