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Midterm 2 Psych Review.docx

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Lawrence Murphy

Chapter 5: Body Rhythms & Mental States 11/8/2012 6:37:00 PM Consciousness  The awareness of internal and external stimuli o 1. Awareness of external events o 2. Your awareness of your internal sensations o 3. Your awareness of your self as the unique being having these experiences o 4. Your awareness of your thoughts about these experiences Circadian rhythms  The 24/hr biological cycles found in humans and many other species  Periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning  Relies on external & internal cues o External (Entrainment)  Light/dark cycles  Clock time  Temperature o Internal (Endogenous)  In the absence of time cues humans still live out a 24 hr day  When External Cues Change o Internal Desynchronization  Occurs when you flu across multiple time zones  Wake patterns adjust quickly, temperature and hormone levels take several days  Jet Lag  Effects your energy level, mental skills, motor coordination Long-term Biological Rhythm  Seasonal Affective disorder (SAD) o Feelings of sadness, lethargy, drowsiness & craving carbs o More common in females  PMS o Hormone levels rise and fall o No universal ties to emotion and menstrual cycle Sleep & Wake Cycles  Researchers use EEG (records brainwaves), EMG (records muscular activity and tension), and EOG (records eye movements) to learn more about sleep  During sleep, people cycle through a series of 4 stages  Stage 1 o Brief transitional stage of light sleep that usually lasts only a few (1-7) minutes o Theta waves prominent o Hypnic jerks, muscle twitching, muscle activity slows down  Stage 2 o Brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves, called sleep spindles, appear against a background of mixed EEG activity o 10-25 minutes o Breathing pattern and heart rate slows, slight decrease in body temperature  Stages 3 and 4 o Reach slow-wave sleep (SWS) in about 30 minutes and stay there for roughly 30 minutes o Rhythmic breathing, limited muscle activity o Delta waves (most evident in stage 4)  Then stages start to reverse o 1(initial),2,3,4,3,2,1(REM), 2, 3, 4, 3…….  Rapid Eye Movement o Subsequent Stage 1: REM Sleep  When you reach what should be stage 1 once again, usually reach this stage  Irregular breathing and pulse rate, muscles extremely relaxed  Although REM is a relatively deep stage of sleep, EEG activity is dominated by beta waves that resemble those observed when people are alert and awake  Most dreams come from this stage Why is Sleep Important?  Memory consolidation  Improves insight & problem solving  Allows the body and mind to recover  Levels of hormones necessary for normal muscle development and proper immune system functioning decline  Sleep Deprivation o Can impair individuals’ attention, reaction time, motor coordination, and decision making o These effects cause harmful, sometimes deadly, consequences for certain jobs (shift work) o After prolonged sleep deprivation: hallucinations and delusions According to Freud, there are different levels of awareness. The EEG summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings called brain waves that very in amplitude and frequency.  Beta o Normal waking thought, alert problem solving  Alpha o Deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation  Theta o Light sleep  Delta o Deep, dreamless sleep Sleep Disorders  Insomnia o Chronic problems in getting adequate sleep o 3 basic patterns  Difficulty falling asleep initially  Difficulty remaining asleep  Persistent early morning awakening o Causes  Excessive anxiety, depression, significant stress, other health problems, use of stimulant drugs o Treatment  Sedatives (sleeping pills)  Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)  Longer lasting benefit  Narcolepsy o A disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods  Sleep Apnea o Involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep  Nightmares o Anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep  Night Terrors o Abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic  Sleep Walking o Occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep o Also called Somnambulism Dream Theories  The Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) o Dreams allow us to gratify our wishes & desires (usually sexual/violent)  The Problem Solving Approach (Cartwright) o Express current life concerns o May help through current issues/problems at time of crisis o Not restricted by logic or realism  The Cognitive Approach o Modification of cognitive activity that goes on while we are awake o Thinking without sensory overload of reality  The Activation-Synthesis Theory o Random neurons activated by REM, then cortex constructs dream to make sense of these signals  What can we conclude about dreams? o Contents  Commonality among content  Reflect popular cultural themes  Day residue  What we think about during the day tends to end up in our dreams  External stimuli  Noises while we’re sleeping tend to go into our dreams  Lucid dreams  Awareness of dreaming while in dream state  May be able to exert some control over the dream Hypnosis  Systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility  Theories o Hypnosis as role playing  It is the subjects’ role expectations that produce hypnotic effects, rather than a special trancelike state of consciousness o Hypnosis as an altered state of consciousness  Hypnosis creates a dissociation in consciousness (split into 2 streams)  2 streams  1. Communication with the hypnotist and the external world  2. “Hidden observer” Altering Consciousness with Drugs  Psychoactive drug o Capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition & behaviour  Stimulants o Speed up activity in the CNS o Nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines o (little bit) excitement, confidence, well being, euphoria o (larger amount) anxiety, jitters, hyper alert o (much larger amount) convulsions, heart failure, death  Depressants o Slow activity in CNS o Alcohol, tranquilizer o (little) feel calm, drowsy, reduced inhibition o (large amount) irregular heartbeat, convulsions, death  Opiates o Relieve pain o Opium, morphine, heroine, methadone o Mimic actions of endorphins o When injected, rush of euphoria  Psychedelic drugs o Disrupt normal thought processes, such as time and space o Hallucinations o LSD, Salvia o Effects vary (some have scary trips)  Physical dependence/tolerance o Exists when a person must continues to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness  Psychological dependence o Exists when a person must continues to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for the drug Drug Example Potential Side Effects Narcotics Heroin, Drowsiness, nausea, impaired mental and motor /Opiates Morphine functioning Sedatives Seconal, Drowsiness, severely impaired coordination, emotional Quaalude swings Stimulant Cocaine Increased blood pressure, irritability, insomnia s Hallucino LSD Nausea, mood swings, dilated pupils, anxiety gens Cannabis Marijuana Bloodshot eyes, dry mouth, anxiety Alcohol Wine, beer Impaired coordination, emotional swings, hangover MDMA Ecstasy Insomnia, muscle tension, blurred vision Chapter 6: Sensation & Perception 11/8/2012 6:37:00 PM Sensation  The stimulation of sense organs Perception  The selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory output  Perceiving without Awareness o Priming  A method used to measure unconscious cognitive processes, in which a person is exposed to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects behaviour or performance on another task or in another situation Sense Receptors  The detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical object  Sensory receptors (“scouts”)  Sensory nerves (“field officers”) o Transmit what the “scouts” have detected  Impulses reach cells of the brain (“command centre”) Synesthesia  The stimulation of one sense also consistently evokes a sensation in another (perceptual crossover) o Ex. Hearing clarinet and tasting cherries Psychophysics  Absolute Threshold o Minimum amount of stimulation needed for an organism to detect a stimulus 50% of the time  The Difference Threshold (Just Noticeable Difference) o Smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect  Sensory Deprivation o The absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation o The human brain requires a minimum amount of sensory stimulation in order to function normally Selective Attention  The focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment an the blocking out of others Inattentional Blindness  Failure to consciously perceive something you are looking at because you are not attending to it  “Its easy to miss something you’re not looking for” Vision  The stimulus is light  Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave, moving, naturally enough, at the speed of light  Wavelength  Hue (colour)  Amplitude  Brightness/Intensity  Purity  Saturation/Richness  The lens of the eye focuses light on the retina, the result is an upside-down image  The brain interprets this upside-down pattern of stimulation as something that is right side up The Eye  Rods o Visual receptors that respond to dim light  Cones o Visual receptors involved in colour vision  The Retina o The neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye o Absorbs light, processes, images, and sends visual information to the brain o Piece of central nervous system o The axons that run from the retina to the brain converge at the optic disk o Dark Adaptation  The process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination (and vice versa for light adaptation) Colour  2 kinds of colour mixture o Additive o Subtractive  The trichromatic theory of colour vision o 3 receptors that combine through additive colour mixing  The opponent process theory o Pairs of receptors that work antagonistically (oppositely) Gestalt Principles  The whole is greater than the sum of its parts  Proximity o Things that are near each other tend to be grouped together  Closure o The brain tends to fill in gaps in order to perceive complete forms  Similarity o Things that are alike in some way tend to be perceived as belonging together  Continuity o Lines and patterns tend to be perceived as continuing in time or space Binocular cues  Visual cues to depth or distance requiring two eyes Convergence  The turning inward of the eyes, which occurs when they focus on a nearby object Retinal disparity  The slight difference in lateral separation between two objects as seen by the left eye and the right eye Monocular cues  Visual cues to depth or distance that can be used by one eye alone Optical Illusion  Involves an apparently inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of a visual stimuli and physical reality Impossible figures  Objects that can be represented in 2D pictures
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