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Lawrence Murphy

PS 260- Cognitive Psych Chapter 1: BE THE SQUIRREL Unconscious inference: perceiver plays an interpretive role in experiences, perception is not a passive process -structuralism: contents of mental experience, all conscious experiences can be broken down into basic mental elements: sensations, feelings, images. Based on introspection -functionalism: the functions of mental experience, stream of consciousness -behavioralism: the mind is unobservable; looking at the response is objective and scientific. -Ebbinghaus: pioneering experiments on memory -recall is more difficult as length of list increases -retention increases with number of Repetitions -savings: reduction in number of trials it takes to learn the same list -memory performance declines the longer the time between acquisition and recall -forgetting is initially rapid and then slows (forgetting curve). -Bartlett: objected to artificiality of Ebbinghaus -studied memory for stories (more meaningful to people) -discovered errors in memory. Memory is a reconstructive process guided by schemata -Gestalt psychology: organizational processes in mental processing, the whole is different than the sum of its parts -Chomsky: challenges behaviorism using the example of language, learning without responding, learning without reinforcement, latent learning Neurons may be excitatory, inhibitory or neutral to the connection, similarly nodes also have these connections and they can be strengthened if they are activated at the same time, thus neurons can learn. Broca’s area: expressing language Wernicke’s area: understanding language -left visual field and right visual field in both eyes, left side of both eyes goes to right side brain (non-verbal processing), right field of both eyes goes to left side brain (verbal processing). Limbic system- learning and remembering new information, processing emotion Hippocampus: encoding new information Amygdala: regulating emotion, emotional memories Thalamus: relay point that routes incoming sensory information to appropriate area of the brain (except olfactory) Hypothalamus: controls hormones Single dissociation: have patient with one area of brain damage do two things and compare performance on two tasks proposed to differ in the use of one cognitive process, light evidence that brain area A is responsible for process X and not process Y. Double dissociation: two patients with different areas of brain damage: patient with damage to area A shows deficits in X not Y, patient with damage to area B shows deficits in Y not X (how Broca and Wernicke discovered their areas of the brain). EEG: electrodes to measure electrical activity (when but not where) ERP (event related potentials): plot where and when electrical activity occurs in response to an event MEG Magnetic encephalography: to measure magnetic activity of the brain TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), can shut off a small part of the brain close to the surface Imaging techniques (MRIs, fMRIs): compare resting brain’s blood flow to brain’s blood flow during certain thoughts, poor temporal resolution. PET: radioactive substance, invasive, to track blood flow fMRI: magnetic detectors, detects oxygenated vs non-oxygenated blood, oxygenated blood has iron and so is registered on a magnet, we can trace where blood is being used, images show up in slices **doesn’t guarantee causation Chapter 2 Bottom-up processing: from the stimulus to the neural activity driven by this stimulus to its eventual identification (data-driven processing) Top down processing: bring to bear what we expect in determining what it is we are sensing (conceptually driven processing) Constructive view: infer or construct a percept based on the sensory information we’re receiving and our previous knowledge and experience Directive view: what we perceive about our visual environment is picked up directly Principles of visual organization: Proximity Similarity Good continuation: flow Closure: complete the incomplete Common fate: headed to the same place or at the same speed Common region: belonging to a common designated area Synchrony: elements that occur at the same time Element connectedness: common elements Figure-ground Global processing: we tend to see the large picture fist, exception is the himba tribe Synesthesia: experiences which input from one sensory system produces an experience not only in that modality but another as well ex. Hearing purple. There tends to be consistency in the associations made. McGurk effect: effect occurs upon simultaneous presentation of speech sound and a silent visual display of a speaker pronouncing a different speech sound, causing an average of the two sounds. Ventriloquist effect: a visual cue presented simultaneously with an auditory stimulus biases the localization of the sound Access consciousness: what cognitive system is actually doing Phenomenal consciousness: knowing what the cognitive system is doing Monitoring consciousness: ability to reflect on one’s cognitive processing Self-consciousness: Knowing what the self is doing signal detection theory: perceptual experiences made of sensitivity of particular sensory system, and response bias Semantic priming: processing of one stimulus to enhance the speed at which a related stimulus is processed (primed with the word salt to react to the word pepper faster) Subliminal perception: below phenomenal consciousness Supraliminal: being aware of stimulus Subjective threshold: making a forced guess of what it is Objective threshold: when forced to guess they do no better than a person making a guess -What people think the message is may have more of an impact than the actual message Affordances: action possibilities offered by a particular object ex. Chairs afford sitting, we directly and naturally perceive properties and functions of objects, highly accurate Embodied perception: perception as bodily reactions, visual perception modulated by energetic considerations to promote efficient energy expenditure (runners on the hill) Blindsight: despite lack of visual awareness able to process some information about the stimuli Ch3 Attention: strategically and actively manipulated Limited capacity Flexible: can be shifted Voluntary control Pre-attentive processing: quickly, before attention, effortless, access consciousness Post attentive processing: occurs once attention has been focused on a stimulus, slow and effortful, phenomenal consciousness Subitizing: ability to quickly enumerate a small number of objects (under 3) Visual attention: Goal driven: observer guides the attention process (top-down) Stimulus driven: attention is “grabbed” by some stimulus (bottom-up) Treisman and Gelade (stimulus driven): distracting letters, looking for a blue letter, relatively easy, conjunction search must look for green T; takes a bit longer as the brain must think more to rule out the distractors, takes longer the more distractors there are. Space-based: focusing attention on a spatial location (like a spot-light) Laberge: Reaction time slows as 7 gets further from center concluding that vision is like a spotlight because of clarity to the center. Object-based: ex searching for an object, following an object Egly, Driver, Rafal: press key as soon as object is detected, uses linear objects, found that vision is more likely to follow the object, about objects involved and connections Feature integration theory: visual search as a two stage process, pre-attentively basic features are registered quickly then if an item cannot be classified post-attentive processing takes over. Stages are distinct and discrete. Easier to find orange in red than red in orange, easier to search for orange because it includes a feature (yellowness) that is not present in the red distractors Low prevalence effect: (Wolfe et al) bag screening task. Less frequently the object occurred the worse people were at finding it: low prevalence leads to error prone responding Fleck and Mitroff: In correction condition error rates were low Van Wert etc: used correction but used same display as Wolfe et al and found that giving corrections made no difference Attentional blink: period of time after detecting a visual stimulus before another one can be detected Change blindness or inattentional blindness: inability to notice very obvious stimulus (gorilla) Coherence: visual attention is necessary to hold elements of a visual scene together Attentional set: one’s strategy or mind when watching a visual scene Perceptual set: based on culture and experience and takes place over time Attenuation theory: unattended information is not completely blocked from further analysis, its just “turned down”. Late-selection theory: all incoming information is identified or recognized,only the selected piece of information emerges to phenomenal consciousness Multimode theory: attention is flexible, people can switch from early to late modes of attention, late selection costs more in terms of attentional capacity Psychological refractory period: period of time where response to second stimulus will be slowed due to continuing processing of first stimulus Stimulus onset asynchrony: time between two events, as time between two events increases we start to register it more Dual task paradigm: -multitasking is possible but has costs to both tasks -bottleneck metaphor: tasks interfere to the degree which they tap into the same resources -simultaneous attention style: native American, attend to at least two events effectively -alternative attentional style: European American, attend to things in serial Stroop effect: ability to name the ink colour is disrupted when the word spelled is a different name , reading is an automatic process Differences between automatic and controlled processes are the degrees of control, intention and attentional efficiency Action slip: in the absence of attention, automatic process Data driven error: external events cause inappropriate schema to activate Capture error: intended action similar to another that is very familiar Associative activation error: internal intention activates the wrong schema “what’s up” “great” Loss of activation error: forget what you were doing Description error: carry out intended action on the wrong item, cereal in the fridge -more likely when tired or stressed Auditory processing likened to a gateway that only allows some information into conscious awareness -people are quite capable of listening to one side and ignoring the other, in this case they are unable to tell meaning of the other side, they can determine physical features of the sound (ex. Male voice) Cocktail party phenomenon: when we aren’t listening to another’s conversation but we tune in when we hear our name because it has meaning to us, when ears are switched we can follow the meaning Coreen and Wood: a slight pain for certain words, when listening to a story and shadowing it in the unattended ear the words play and when the words that they were shocked for shows a fear reaction Chapter 4: Executive attention: we direct our attention in response to situational demands -immediate memory: allows for maintenance and manipulation of information currently in consciousness Limit in duration Limit in capacity: magical number of 7 +- 2 Chunking: we can recode information into chunks to be able to store more, limited by rate of presentation and knowledge base Three memory systems: Sensory: extremely brief representation of a just represented stimulus, will fade naturally Long-term Short-term: rehearse or recycle information, it can flow back and forth from STM and LTM Working memory model: immediate memory envisioned as a number of interacting systems; phonological loop: inner voice to “hear” the information internally, repetition including a phonological store and a subvocal rehearsal mechanism, visual representation is converted to some kind of verbal so it can be repeated. Phonological interference- its hard to remember things while reciting unimportant syllables. The longer the word the harder it is to remember because of the limited store, similar words can be forgotten or more difficult to keep track of. Concrete words recalled better than abstract words. Visuo-spatial sketchpad: responsible for the storage and manipulation of visual and spatial information as separate components. Episodic buffer: goes between STM and LTM Central executive: keeps track of which processes being used. Selective attention, task switching, manipulation of material in working memory, response inhibition (questionable as a theory) Unitary memory view: immediate memory seen as currently activated part of long-term memory. Embedded process theory: immediate memory, momentary activation of information in long-term memory, also includes executive process that controls information in and out of attentional focus Decay: loss of information due to the passage of time Interference: information is lost due to interference of other information- proactive: new info disrupted by old. Retroactive: old interfered with by new. Displacement view: new info bumps out old info Overwirting view: a new item overwrites old ones -mind wandering: less likely to occur when we are in a consuming task, associated with reduced awareness, wanders without our intention, aids problem solving and creativity -key features of executive function: inhibitory control, immediate memory, cognitive flexibility Integrative mind-body training: achieve a mind body balance by meditation and mindfulness by being in the present moment, lead to better attention Ch 5 Object recognition: Bottom up recognition (from stimulus) or top down (using expectations or knowledge) Rosch: superiordinate- animal, basic level- bird, subordinate level- chickadee, basic level is entry point Palmer Rosch and Chase: recognition is best when object is in usual orientation Biderman and Gerhardstein: Once primed, reaction time speeds up even in unusual orientation (some kind of categorizing must occur) Palmer: identification of objects was best when followed a scene that was consistent, worst when misleading Davenport and Potter: more accurately identify object than background, more accurate when consistent Theories of object recognition: Parts based- incoming parts parsed into components matched to info in memory -stored representation includes list of primitives called geons (total of 36 simple shapes that combine to form most complex shapes) -view point invariant (shouldn’t matter what perspective it’s seen from) RBC stages of recognition: -edge extraction -search for non-accidental features -parsing at boundary areas, geons determined and matched to memory representations, object identified Tarr and Pinker: RT increased as function of orientation IB Image based approach: objects are recognized by comparing to stored replica Template matching: exact template must be found Multiple views approach: based on experience we have multiple stored view of objects, supported by physiological studies Logothetis Pauls Poggio: neural activity measured and different sets of cells responded most strongly to certain objects, the pathways decreased activation with increases in rotation. Palmeri and Tarr object recognition is the same as visual memory Tarr and Bulthoff: object recognition can be seen as continuum, at one end very view-point independent mechanisms PB when gross categorical judgments required (such as bird vs hammer), at the other end heavily viewpoint dependent mechanisms IB, such as difference between chickadee and robin Face recognition: completely different process than object recognition Thatcher illusion: inverting faces disrupts the ability to recognize them much more than objects. Face, not encoded as mouth, eyes, etc but as entire objects Tanaka Fara: Larry’s face and Larry’s house, when whole thing presented RT is similar, when parts presented house RT is similar to whole but parts of face RT is much longer Blais Jack Sheepers: ethnicity of face to be identified is faster with your own race Keenan: Responding with left hand “not them” occurred later than with right hand. Right side brain more connected to identity Epley and Whitchurch: tendency to see oneself as more attractive than you actually are by 10% more, extends to the processing of family and friends Names of faces as final stage of retrieval RT face recognition < biographical info< retrieving name Bruce and Young (serial account): face must activate representation in face recognition unit, FRU must activate Person Identity Node (PIN), biographical info then Terminal Node determines name Interactive activation and competition model (in parallel, Interactive Activation and Competition IAC model): FRU, PIN, SIU (semantic representation of biographical info and name) bio info has many sources while name has few so takes longer to find the memory Bredart, Brennen: names of good friends and family should have more info, identify if cue belongs to face, RT faster with names than info Non-human primates can’t recognize their own face Tactile recognition: haptics Klatzky Lederman and Metzger: exploratory procedures -lateral motion -pressure -static contact -unsupported holding -enclosure -contour following Material of objects easier to determine than shape, some EPs provide a wider range of information than others but come with a cost because they take the longest to perform Olfactory: people have a tough time describing and identifying smells termed “olfactory-verbal gap”, difficulty in forming olfactory images, odor naming is difficult, odor recognition is much better Semantic networks: representation of categories and concepts in terms of semantic networks, knowledge is stored in the form of associative networks, concepts are represented by nearby nodes that respond to concept or features, strength of activation decreases as a function of time, distance and number of concepts activated Organization allows for quick and efficient understanding, we can infer knowledge of what is not explicitly stated, can even support new learning Natural kinds (occur naturally), Artifacts (designed and used by humans to serve a function), Ad hoc (formed in the service of some goal) Similarity based approaches: categorization as a matter of judging similarity between target object and some standard in long-term memory Classical view: items are classified into particular categories if they have certain features or characteristics Prototype approach: more flexible, based on features of a category that members are likely to have, high family resemblance are seen as typical members and seen as a standard or prototype. Exemplar approach: we represent categories in terms of examples or category exemplars, representation of a concept contains every single encounter we’ve had with it, and we take one of these as a standard, the standard we use will change based on circumstances Essentialist approaches: categories have some underlying nature or essence Rips: presented subjects with stories of made up organisms, participants were likely to label them in a particular category, categorization is a personal theory about what a concept represents Folk biology-investigators propose knowledge of biological systems constitutes a cognitive module that has evolved in the service of adaptation to the environment Ch 6 Declarative memory: factual information about the world and personal experiences Episodic memory: memory for personally experienced events with contextual elements, recollective, emotional component Semantic memory: knowledge or information about the world that doesn’t contain the contextual elements, isolated fact Procedural memory: knowing how 1. Encoding 2. Storage 3. Retrieval Implicit memory: indirect influences, word fragment completion, word stem completion Prospective memory: remembering to do something in the future, can be event- based or time-based Retrospective memory: retrieval is triggered by external instruction initiating search of memory, or self-initiated Distributed repetition: repetition over time, advantage termed as spacing effect Deficient-processing view: massed repetitions lead to deficient processing of the second presentation- you don’t pay as much attention Encoding- variability view: massed presentations amount to little more than one presentation Cepeda, Vuhl, Rohrer, Wixted: the best length of study interval depends on how long you want to remember it Craik and Watkins: lists of words, keep track of last one with a p, number of intervening items made no difference in recall Maintenance rehearsal: maintaining the item in consciousness, ineffective in enhancing one’s ability to recall but some improvement in recognition Elaborative rehearsal: thinking about the meaning of the information to be remembered Hyde and Jenkins: memory was much better when participants rated pleasantness Incidental learning: participants are not told they are testing memory Intentional learning: participants are told that this is a memory test Levels of processing theory (Craig and Lockhart): how information is processed is the determinant of how it is remembered from superficial to deep analysis of meaning Rogers, Kuiper and Kirker: self-referenced memories are encoded more deeply than meaning Cunnigham, Turk, MacDonald, MacRae: items were better remembered when owned by the participant Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada: In terms of survival value lead to better recall Bower, Clarke, Lesgold and Winzenz: those that organized remembered over 90% after second trial, organization could be close companion to chunking Distinctiveness: how well information is distinguished from other information in memory, von restorff phenomenon Material-appropriate processing: Relational processing:degree to which we process items in terms of their interrelationships Individual-item processing: aided by distinctive processing Enactment effect: people are better at remembering action phrases if they enact the activity Transfer-appropriate processing: encoding is defined by what is required at retrieval Semantically encoded words should do better at a recognition test Phonologically encoded words should do better in rhyme recognition test TAP- focus on encoding, way encoded should be relevant to way retrieved ESP- focus on retrieval, best retrieval cues tap into something at encoding Context-dependency effects: memory is better when retrieval is similar to the context when it was encoded Outshining hypothesis: context cues are last resort if free recall and no other cues are present Roediger and Karpicke: tested themselves regularly remembered the information longer (but didn’t do quite as well initially)- Labeled the Testing effect Encoding specificity: memory depends on the overlap between what’s happening at retrieval and what happened at encoding Habib & Nyberg: MTL region distinguished between not recalled but recognized and LIFC distinguished those recalled and recognized, MTL may be necessary for encoding and LIFC for retrieval. Nairne: cue distinctiveness- effectiveness of a cue in singling out a specific memory Craik: age related deficits in memory due to extent self-initiated recall is required Focal processing: one thing at a time, with a cue more likely to trigger the intention automatically than non-focal processing Autonoetic consciousness: reliving past experience Noetic consciousness: familiarity with the fact Remember- Know paradigm: remember judgment; recall vividly presentation of the word, effortful searching deeper processing, know judgment; shallow processing no experience of reliving automatic retrieval. Remember judgments more likely to be mistaken. Shirot et al: shown negative and neutral photos, enhanced remember judgments for negative photos but this subjective feeling was not associated with memory accuracy which was the same for negative and neutral photos. Source of subjective sense of remembering: amygdale, function of amygdale boosts confidence Warrington and Weiskrantz: amnesiacs showed recall of words for implicit memory tests, showing priming just like non-amnesiacs Jacoby: memory for recognition was best if participants generated word, memory for identification was best for participants who had read the words CH 7 Autobiographical memory Neisser- ecological validity Banaji and Crowder- internal validity Linton: some memories undergo a transition from autobiographical memories to generic semantic memories (autobiographical facts). Targeted event recall: requires the recall of specific events or well-defined periods from one’s life and can allow for some assessment of accuracy, usually there is corroborating information -subjective distance of memory depends on how much the participant felt they had changed since the event, remembering forward creates a narrative and the change takes time, the participant will feel as if they are further away, backward recall gives little feeling of change and feels closer to the event Diary technique: running record of events so firmer conclusions about memory accuracy can be reached, Rubin Wetzler Nebes: used cue word technique to discover memory function across life-span. (Usher & Neisser) If the child was 3 or younger at the time of event, family stories actually led to fewer memories than if the child was 4 or 5; in that case it lead to stronger recall. This may be because of fragility of early memories. Childhood amnesia: (Wanes about 4.7) -developing infant brain -children themselves do not show childhood amnesia, they can remember what happened to them when they were even littler kids -developing language skills may be a factor, children begin to remember events from their lives as soon as they are capable of describing the events, most dramatic language strides between 2-4 and start verbally recounting experiences developing autobiographical memory -different ways of recounting experiences: narrative (reminiscing), elaborative style (detailed), pragmatic (succinct) -sense of self: knowledge that one is a person with unique and recognizable characteristics Wang: US had earlier childhood memories than did Taiwanese, US memories reflected personal autonomy Jack et al.: adolescents with the earliest memories were those who had enjoyed the most elaboration Nelson and Fulvish: autobiographical memory is a complex ability that emerges as a number of abilities and contextual factors. Basic explicit memory abilities, narrative, memory talk, developing consciousness of the past Reminiscence Bumps: -most life milestones, relevance to identity formation -not only for one’s own events but autobiographical facts such as books or movies they prefer -things learned in adulthood are remembered best -rehearsed often due to their importance Peak functioning account: cognitive abilities and brain function are at their peak in early adulthood, Janssen and Mure collect internet autobiographical memories, they were mostly unimportant seeming to account for peak functioning account rather than importance Forgetting: -lack of rehearsal, interference -events are regular, routine, they blend together -Wang: Euro-american cultures tend to remember specific episodes (autobiographical memories), Asian cultures tend to remember generic memories (autobiographical facts), culture influences what is rehearsed, or possibly it influences what is encoded rather than what is forgotten. Western cultures focus on specific objects and events and use small segments, Eastern cultures focus on relationship between events and objects resulting in large segments of text. This shows difference of encoding. -Marian and Nesser: bilingual individuals, Russian and English, to see if cue word language would help trigger memories from either Russia or US, interview language was actually to more important factor -Casasanto and Dijkstra: participants to recall when moving marbles, moving marbles using small upward movements by transferring marbles to a higher platform they showed a bias to recall of positive events -What is best cue, when is the worst -Proust phenomenon, odours to elicit memories are especially vivid, actual odour better than odour label, proximity between sensory area for olfaction and amygdale and hippocampus Conway- autobiographical memory as the basis for all episodic memory, self memory system: the heart of episodic memory lies within the working self including everything about who you are, autobiographical memory is constructed rather than reproduced thus can vary depending on circumsance Autobiographical database: 1. Lifetime periods: slices of lifetime such as, goals, plans, themes 2. General events 3. Complex episodic memories: sensory-perceptual details -retrieval of autobiographical memories is slow process Basic-Systems view: Autobiographical memory has several distinct brain systems, each of the individual senses, spatial system, emotion and a narrative system that forms causal coherence to the memory -involuntary memories tend to be specific rather than for general events, more specific is rapid Schlageman and Kvavilashvili: Found that involuntary memories were retrieved almost twice as fast, more specific. The same process is used to retrieve specific memories whether they are voluntary or involuntary. Flashbulb memory: detailed, vivid, confidently held memory for the circumstances surrounding when you first heard a startling bit of news. Includes: location, activity, source, emotion and aftermath “seared” into the brain. We have unshakeable confidence in them. Phantom Flashbulbs: misremembrances. TV priority: many mistakes associated with hearing about the event on TV. Time Slice Error: vividly recalled an occasion where they heard about the event but it is the wrong slice of time. Memory practices of a community such as media attention and conversation can affect flashbulb memories. Mood-dependent memory: retrieval of a previously encoded event is enhanced when the mood experienced at retrieval matches the mood present at encoding -depressives recall events from the more general level of autobiographical memory hierarchy-autobiographical memory serves a communicative function, personally experienced events makes our communication seem more truthful and believable, persuasive, allows us to connect emotionally with others. Helps us reflect on and think through life events. Directive function- helps us learn and direct future behavior. Ch 8 Malleability in Memory, forgetting, editing, distortion Sins of omission: failures to bring something to mind Transience: loss of information over time Absentmindedness: problems with interface between attention and long-term memory Blocking: failure in retrieving information Sins of commission: unwanted or inaccurate memories Persistence: continued but unwanted automatic retrieval of memories that we’d like to forget Misattribution: feeling the information came from the wrong source Suggestibility: can lead to false recollection Bias: influence of who we are on what we remember Carmichael et al: gave ambiguous sketches, their memory was more what the label was than the sketch Stress and Trauma: -stress can disrupt or enhance memory, depending on particular circumstances Weapon focus: presence of a weapon can serve to focus one’s attention narrowly causing lack of peripheral detail, tunnel memory. -stress makes them less likely to identify the ID and more likely to pick the wrong one -arousal mode engaged when observer is physiologically relaxed and task requires simple perceptual intake, novel, surprising and informative events receive the most attention -activation mode: high levels of both cognitive anxiety and physiological activation there is a drop in performance -non-linear relationship between physiological activation and memory under conditions of high cognitive anxiety; high levels of cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal lead to better memory until a certain point where it drops off -stimulus becomes central to memory if it relates to a person’s goals Other-race effect: chance of mistaken identity is 1.5 times greater if the person is another race Misinformation effect: misleading information presented between the encoding of an event and its subsequent recall influences a witness’s memory (retroactive interference) Loftus et al.: car accident, misleading information caused people to misremember Unconscious transference: witnesses fail to distinguish between a target person and another person encountered at a different time whose face is also familiar- similar to change blindness Davis et al: illusions of continuity- mind filling
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