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PS270 Final: Chapter: 11 Notes

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Lawrence Murphy

Ch. 11 Aggression: Intent to harm Instrumental Aggression: means to obtain a desired outcome Emotional Aggression: harm is inicted for its own sake Culture and Aggression: Individualism collectivism Bullying non violent cultures Subcultures: in america teenagers and young adults, as well as people in the Southern States, are the groups most prone to violence Countries that score lower on the UN Human Development Index have higher rates of violence Countries that have higher rates of violence, particularly gun violence Income and gender inequality correlate with homicide globally males are more violent than females Gender and Aggression: meta analysis conducted of 148 studies of direct and indirect aggression involving children and adolescents across several countries Magnitude and direction of gender differences in aggression depend on the type of aggression Nations with more young men than typical are more subject to revolution and war Individual Differences: Aggression in childhood predicts aggression in adulthood More aggressive individuals: are more disagreeable and irritable are more extraverted hold more hostile cognitions express anger more frequently Is Aggression innate? Evolutionary Psychology: a universal, innate characteristic that has evolved from natural and sexual selection pressures gender differences in aggression can be traced to competition for status Is Aggression learned? Aggression increases with rewards for neglected children, attention is an award Punishment only works under very specic conditions
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