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Sport Psychology Final Exam Review.docx

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Lawrence Murphy

Final Exam Review Chapter Notes: Chapter 1  Sport psychology = micro and sport sociology = macro  Applied Sport Psychologists o Apply theories/research to sport settings to increase well-being, health and performance of athlete o Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP)  Clinical Sport Psychologists – Deal with emotional problems and personality disorders experienced by athletes  Educational Sport Psychologists –Know principles of sport psychology, give information to athletes and coaches o Help athletes gain psychological skills needed for optimal participation in sport  Experimental Sport Psychology– Conduct research to further knowledge of psychology of sport  Ethics in Sport Psychology o Act responsibly, maintain high level of competence, communicate with others, keep information confidential, aware of social responsibilities to communities, have education on ethical issues Chapter 4  Situational approach – explain relationship between personality traits and environment – individuals bring their personality with them to a situation  Problems include: o Poorly defined variables, bad data sampling techniques, failure to incorporate importance of environment in research, inappropriate statistical tests for data analysis, use of certain personality inventories, assumption that correlation = causation  Measuring personality o Two groups 1. Objective personality tests - Present the test-taker with several option 2. Projective personality tests - Unstructured, open-ended tests  Influence of Athletic Participation on Personality Development o Attrition model – Children that don’t possess traits indicative of athletic success drop out of sport o Selection model – Some choose to participate in sports because they think that there’s a difference between athletes and non-athletes o Change model – Long-term research study tests whether personality traits of athletes change over time  Comparing Personalities of Athletes at Different Skill Levels o Credulous Group Believers – Personality profiles useful in predicting athletic success o Situational factors may influence scale of relationship between mood and performance  Relationship between Personality and Sport Injury Susceptibility o Traits of vigour, tender-mindedness and being reserved correlate with injuries  Female Athletes o Title IX – A law prohibiting sexual discrimination in institutions receiving federal funds  Schools provide equal opportunities for women athletes o 3 psychological phenomena relevant to female athletes 1. Fear of success  Individual avoids success because it would be inconsistent with their sex role  May cause women to feel they are being socially rejected 2. Psychological androgyny  Individual possess equal levels of masculine and feminine qualities 3. Personality traits of female athletes  Females tend to be less angry, confused, depressed and neurotic  Stacking – Selection of the position for an individual based on their race o Blatant discrimination in the sport world o Positions like pitchers and QB given to white people o Modeling hypothesis – Black athletes play certain positions = young Black athletes prefer those positions o Different opportunity hypothesis – Black athletes start certain position based on the number of opportunities to play that position o Stereotype hypothesis – Coach possess stereotypes about white/black players – stereotypes suggest that members of a certain race is better for certain positions  Athletes Participating in High Risk Sports o High risk – Sports involving a high level of danger o Adventure reaction model – Model of risk participation incorporating participant characteristics and patters on use in attempt to predict one’s level of engagement  3 attributes 1. Frequency of participation 2. Skill/experience level 3. Locus of control  3 environmental factors 1. Level of risk 2. Social orientation 3. Environmental orientation  3 attributes + 3 environmental characteristics place participants in 1 of 3 phases 1. Introduction o Little to no risk recreation experience, low participation/ skill levels, tend to rely on leader for task completion 2. Developmental o Some experience, want more skill, have a leader to perfect skills 3. Commitment o High level of participation/skill, perform task with no guidance, dangerous, natural and unstructured settings o Risk recreation model – Describes risk recreation involvement through a 5 phase transactional cycle  Phase 1: Attraction involves seeking out and coping with the risk environment  Phase 2: Cognitive appraisal involves perception of risk and probability of failure  Phase 3: Decision making which people decide which tasks are appropriate  Phase 4: Individual’s performance experiences  Phase 5: Intuitive and reflective appraisal involving person’s search for the factors responsible for their success/failure  Wilderness Users – Individuals that prefer outdoor recreational and sporting activities o 2 types of wilderness users 1. Purists - Want solitude and tend to get upset by signs of other humans 2. Non-purists - Less concerned about others being present o Experiences help to relieve tension or serve as a diversion Chapter 5  Classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) – Learning involving involuntary, reflective responses o Begins with the stimulus (US) which elicits a response (UR), then a neutral stimulus (CS) is presented immediately prior to the stimulus (US) – the neutral stimulus (CS) begins to elicit the response (CR) o Temporal relationship among CS and US are vital, CS must be presented before the US o Principles  Extinction – Elimination of a response through the removal of the US or reward  Generalization – Causing of a CR through presentation of a new CS that’s similar to original CS  Discrimination – Application of new CS that’s dissimilar from original CS and fails to elicit the CR  Operant conditioning – Reinforcements/punishments trying to increase good behaviours/decrease bad ones o Advancing understanding of voluntary behaviours  Find out if stimulus is positive or negative and if it is applied or removed  Positive reinforcement leads to an increase in behaviour and vice versa  Response cost/omission – Removal of positive stimulus  Negative reinforcement – Removing a negative stimulus  Removing a negative to get desired result o Principles  Apparatus/Skinner Box – Rats rewarded for pressing bar is food, floor is shocked for punishment  Shaping – Reinforcing success toward a goal behaviour  Extinction – If no reward when doing target behaviour, behaviour will probably stop  Schedules of reinforcement  Immediate vs. delayed reinforcement o Immediate – Immediately follows target behaviour – effective in teaching and changing behaviour o Delayed – Time in between target behaviour and reward  Continuous vs. partial reinforcement o Continuous – Rewarding a behaviour each time it’s exhibited o Partial – Involves rewarding a behaviour occasionally  Ratio schedules o Specify number of responses necessary for a reward to be presented o Fixed – When reward is presented each time a specified number of responses has occurred o Variable – The number of responses required is an average  Superstition  Non-contingent reinforcement – Reward is not based on a behaviour  Contingent reinforcement – When reward is based on a behaviour  Superstitions on uniforms and numbers  Observational learning – Learning of behaviours through imitation and modeling o Bandura’s model  Four steps in order for this to occur 1. Attention – Attention directed toward the model 2. Memory – Store information in memory 3. Motor reproduction – Physical/intellectual/developmental skills to reproduce behaviour 4. Motivation – Need motivation to exhibit behaviour  Thorndike/law of effects – Behaviour resulting in a positive outcome will probably happen again  Application of the Psychology of learning in Sport Settings o Effective behavioural coaching – Applying learning principles to sport settings to teach and train athletes  Employs operant learning principles o Length and spacing of practice sessions  Distributed practice – Widely spaced sessions with long periods of rest  Massed practice – Practicing numerous occasions during a short period of time o Feedback, knowledge of results and knowledge of performance  Motor learning facilitated when providing feedback  Knowledge of results – Provide information about the accuracy of behaviour  Knowledge of performance – Information about 1 or more of the individual parts if the movement process involved in the outcome o Punishment – needs to be intense to be effective  Praise desired behaviour and be consistent with punishment and rewards Chapter 7  Arousal – Non-emotional physiological state of readiness to perform physically, intellectually or perceptually o Involves the autonomic nervous system (ANS)  Heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration and respiration  Two sections 1. Sympathetic division – Arousing division - Prepares body for action 2. Parasympathetic division – Calming division  Homeostasis – State of balance and equilibrium  Stress – Non-emotional response to an environmental demand (high stress = high level of physiological arousal) o Hans Selye – Typical reaction to stress is called the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)  Three stages 1. Alarm stage – Begins with onset of stressor - characterized by higher levels of physiological arousal – Prepares to combat stressor 2. Resistance stage – Organism tried to cope with stressor – First, stage is marked by high levels of arousal – As stress continues, arousal declines 3. Exhaustion stage – Low levels of arousal characterized in this stage – As individual’s ability to cope lowers, individual may feel fatigued or sick o Eustress – Stress viewed in a positive manner, such as excitement for an event o Neustress –Occurs when environmental demands have neither positive/negative effects  Anxiety – Negative interpretations of past, present and future environmental demands o State anxiety/A-State – Reaction to current stressful condition – should subside after stressor o Trait anxiety/A-Trait – Involves long-lasting chronic predisposition to anxiety in stressful environments o Measuring anxiety – Research on anxiety in sport use general and specific traits – three general traits  Affective Adjective Checklist (AACL)  Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS)  State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) o Two questionnaires developed by Marten’s et al.  Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT)  Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) o Somatic anxiety – Physiological element of anxiety and match arousal o Cognitive anxiety – Concerns fear, apprehension and worry about upcoming events  Timing of the stressor o Anxiety about past, current or future stressors o Residual anxiety – Anxiety about the past o Post-competition anxiety – Stress about past performances due to their/the team’s poor performance o Competition anxiety – Stress due to current competition o Anticipatory anxiety – Anxiety due to upcoming event  Amount of stimulation o Quantitative overload – Situation when individual required to do more work than possible in given time o Qualitative overload – Situation when individual required to do more work than possible in small amount of time – person understands/finishes work but feels incapable of their abilities o Quantitative under load – Athlete feels anxious because they have little to do o Qualitative under load – Athlete anxious due to repetitive/boring task – feels lack of mental stimulation  Arousal and athletic performance o Inverted-U theory – Argued that relationships between arousal and performance are non-linear  Highest level of performance found when athlete is moderately aroused o Drive theory – Argues that relationship between arousal and performance is linear (positive correlation)  Reasons underlying relationships among arousal, anxiety and athletic performance o Main reason is that physiological arousal reduces one’s cognitive capacity o Moderate level of arousal can be good because reduction in cognitive capacity cause person to pay less attention to irrelevant cues  Inver
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