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SY101 Exam Review.docx

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Marcela Cristi

SY101 Exam ReviewSociologyThe scientific study of society and human behaviorThe Sociological PerspectiveStresses the social contexts in which people live and how these contexts influence their lives At the core of this perspective is another term coined as the sociological imaginationThe Sociological ImaginationWay of looking at the world that allows links between the apparently private problems of the individual and important social issuesQuestions how people are influenced by their societyBiological DeterminismThe belief that the way we act reflects inbuilt biological traits such as the need to reproduce the need to survive and so onSocietyGroup of people that share a culture and territorySocializationA process through which our beliefs values attitudes and even our emotions are sculpted throughout our lives by our contact with parents siblings peers schools religion media and a wide variety of major societal institutionsAgents of socialization are the social institutions organizations groups and individual people who socialize usAnticipatory Socialization is when we learn how to play a role before we enter itResocialization involves learning new norms values attitudes and behaviorsSocial LocationWhere people are located in a particular societyFactors considered occupation income education gender age and ethnicityMacrosociologyFocuses on the broad features of societyUsed to analyze such things as social class and patriarchyOther examples Conflict theory functionalism and feminismMicrosociologyEmphasis placed on social interaction Focus on face to face interaction discourse analysis symbolic interactionism queer theory postmodernism and feminism ScienceSystematic methods of studying the social and natural worlds and the knowledge obtained by those methodsSocial SciencesAttempt to understand the social worldIncludes political science economics anthropology psychology sociologyAugust ComtePositivismFounded by Auguste ComteCredited as the founder of sociology and the first sociologistTheory of knowledge based on experience alone and not on metaphysical speculation or ungrounded philosophical conceptsKarl MarxClass ConflictBelieved that class conflict is the engine of human historyHeld the belief that the bourgeoisie the controlling class of capitalists or those who own the means to produce wealthcapital land factories and machines are locked in conflict with the proletariat the exploited classthe mass of workers who do not own the means of productionDeveloped Conflict Theory o Conflict Theory The theory that class struggle is the key to all human historyBelieved that authority runs through all layers of society o Authority Power that people consider legitimateTraditional Authority is based on customRationallegal Authority is based on written rulesCharismatic Authority is based on a persons exceptional qualitiesRoutinization of Charisma refers to the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to a rationallegal authorityMeans of Production The tools factories land and investment capital used to produce wealthClass Consciousness Common identity based on their position in the means of productionFalse Consciousness Workers mistakenly identifying with capitalists and their interestsIn a Dual Labor Market workers are divided along racial ethnic and gender linesThe Reserve Labor Force contains unemployed workers from which owners can draw when they need to expand production
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