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SY101 Midterm Exam Review.docx

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Lucy Luccisano

SY101 Midterm Exam Review 10/7/2013 12:48:00 PM Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective What Is Sociology?  The scientific study of society and human behavior Peter Berger 1963  That “something” is “society within us”  Social construction vs. Instinct Social Construction  The focus to uncover the ways in which individuals and groups participate in the creation of their perceived reality C. Wright Mills (1916-1962)  “Sociological Imagination” 1959  Difference between “personal troubles” and “public issues” of social structure What makes Sociology a Science?  A social (rather than a natural) science  A skeptical perspective  A negativistic logic  Communalism  A systematic approach to enquiry The Development of Sociology  Enlightenment  Modernity  Industrialization  Imperialism  Scientific Method Three Phases of Sociology  Social order and/or social change  Field of Knowledge  Social Change Distinctions: Capitalism and Socialism  Private ownership of the means of production  It encourages the pursuit of personal profit  Free competition Socialism  Public ownership of the means of production  Pursuit of collective goals o Slogan – “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs”  Centralized decision making Changes  Capitalism – Increased socialist policies (1960’s – 1900s)  Socialism – increased “market” policies (1989 – very important)  Convergence Theory? Auguste Comte (1798-1857)  Coined the term sociology – the science of society o Social order and progress o Positivism o Observe and classify social behavior to uncover social laws Karl Marx (1818-1883)  Social inequality and social change  Economic system determined the form of society  Conflict between bourgeoisie and proletariat  Relations of inequality and class conflict  Alienation Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)  Social facts o Patterns of behavior that characterize a social group o Social cohesion  The Division of Labor in Society (1893) o Pre-modern society – mechanical solidarity o Modern society – organic solidarity  Anomie  Study of suicide Max Weber (1864-1920)  “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” (1905)  Value Freedom (objectivity) in sociological inquiry “replication”  Verstehen – Empathetic understanding in research Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)  “Society in America” in 1837 o Family customs, race and gender relations o Sexism blocked academic involvement Theoretical Perspectives Facts never interpret themselves Theory – conceptual framework  Symbolic Interactionism: o Small-scale social interaction o Symbols o Meaning people attach to their behavior  Functionalism o Organism o A system of inter-related parts and each part has a function  Conflict Theory o Focus on social inequality and social struggle/change  Feminist Theory o Unequal gender relations o Standpoint of women  Postmodernism o Diversity and difference o No generalizations o How power works through culture and knowledge  Queer Theory o Gay and lesbian studies o Challenges all notions of a fixed identity  Critical Race Theory o Considers the relationship that exists among race, the American justice system, and society o Race is a social construct Micro and Macro Levels of Analysis  Macro – Focus on large scale patterns o Conflict theory o Functionalist theory o Critical race theory  Micro – Focus on small scale patterns o Symbolic Interactionism o Queer theory *Feminism and Post-Modernism fall under both Chapter 3: Culture What is Culture?  The way we maker sense of and give meaning to things  Stuart Hall – shared conceptual maps of meanings Components of Culture  Material o Art, buildings, weapons, and machines Non-Material Culture  Symbols we use to give meaning to and represent our world in a particular way o Ex. Language, values and gestures Components of Symbolic Culture  Gestures o Cultural and national differences  Language o The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis  Language determines our consciousness, through language we learn a certain way of thinking and perceiving Culture and Power  Culture as ideology (conflict theory)  Ideologies: Shared cultural knowledge or sets of beliefs which serve the interests of particular groups Conflict Theory  Interested in how people were convinced to believe these  False consciousness  Ideologies are a distortion of reality Culture as Discourse Postmodernism  Discourse: A framework of shared cultural understandings  Expressed through language, images, and social practices  Privilege certain ways of understanding and marginalize others Culture  Values – Shared standards of good and bad  Norms – Accepted rules of behavior that develop out of values  Sanctions – Consequences and reactions used to reinforce adherence to norms  Negative  Positive  Folkways – Informal norms that suggest customary ways of behaving  Mores – Norms that carry a strong sense of social importance and necessity  Taboos - the prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either too sacred and consecrated or too dangerous and accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake  Subcultures – A group within a population whose values, norms, folkways or mores set them apart from the mainstream culture  Counterculture – A type of subculture that strongly opposes the widely held cultural patterns of the larger population Ethnocentrism  Judging other culture’s by the standards of one’s own Cultural Relativism  All cultures and cultural practices have equal value and need to be judged on their own terms  Is there a moral standard by which to judge cultures?  Who decided what it is?  Difference between cultural and human rights Values in Canadian Society  Difficult to identify core values since Canada is a pluralistic society  Are there distinctly Canadian values?  How do we differ from Americans? o More liberal socially and politically than the USA o But le
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