WS 100 Final Exam Review

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Department
Women & Gender Studies
Course
WS100
Professor
Lorraine Vander Hoef
Semester
Winter

Description
Final Exam Review Questions WS100OC I. Define the following terms: Global feminism (670-2) - is a feminist theory closely aligned with postcolonial theory and postcolonial feminism. It concerns itself primarily with the forward movement of women's rights on a global scale. Using different historical lenses from the legacy of colonialism, Global Feminists adopt global causes and start movements which seek to dismantle what they argue are the currently predominant structures of global patriarchy. Global Feminism is also known as Transnational Feminism, World Feminism, and International Feminism. - On october 25, 1985, president vigdis finnbogadottir of iceland joined tens of thousands of women who had walked off the job in a twenty four hour protest against male privelege on the island. She also refused to sign a bil that would have ordered striking flight attendants back to work. - feminism began spreading beyond industrialized nations - many of these networks grew out of the United Nations‘ 1975 international women‘s year - at the first world conference on women in mexico, delegates urged the UN to proclaim the years between 1975 and 1985 ―the decade for women‖, at each other conference there were two parallel meetings – one for delegates who represented their governments and another for women who participated in the nongovernmental organization (NGO) - thousands of women rubbing shoulders or debating in mexico, denmark, kenya or china were learning from and teaching eachother about their lives - aside from their differences, they were also discovering the ubiquity of certain kinds of shared oppression – violence and poverty, that had seemed local, rather than global - in the process they were nurturing and legitimatning a global feminism, which was quite literally being born at the UN conferences as they watched - from the start the NGO forum meetings witnessed serious clashes between ―first‖ and ―third‖ wold women whose nations were at war - essence of global feminism à addressing the world‘s problems as if women mattered. Human rights organizations, for instance, had traditionally focused exclusively on state- sanctioned violence against political activists. But most women encountered violence not in prison or at protests, but in their homes and communities. - At a 1993 UN World conference on human rights in vienna, women from all over the globe movingly testified to the various forms of violence that had devestated their lives - Feminists successfully made the case, the conference passed a resoultion that recognized violence agains twomen and girls as a violation of their human right - One immediate consequence of this historic redefinition of human rights was that western nations could now grant political asylum to women fleeing certain violence or deaths from husbands or other relatives - Feminists countered that educating women and giving them control over their reproductive decisions was a far more effective way of controlling population growth. ―the deceptively simple idea of a women making a decision about her future is one of the cornerstones of the emerging debate on global population policy‖ - The ―platform for action‖, the document that emerged from the bejing conference in 1995, asked the nations of the world to see social and economic development through the eyes of a women. Although the ―platform‖ recognized the diferences that seperated women, it also emphasized the universal poverty and violence that crippled the lives of so many women - In the years following the conference in 1995, feminist activists and scholars began the process of redefining rape as a war crime, publisizing the particular plight of refugees and rethinking the role women might play in reconstructing societies plagued by war - At the same time, women in both developed and developing nations began debating the impact of feminism itself on global culture and economics - A revolution is underway and there is no end in sight - As women in developing countries become educated and enter the marketplace as wage earners, they will invariably intensify existing cultural conflicts between religious and secular groups, and between those sectors of society living under preindustrial conditions and those who connect through cyber space in a postmodern global society - Like small brushfires, these cultural wars may circle the globe, igniting a wild and frightening firestorm. Inevitably, some women will feel defeated as they encounter wave after wave of backlash. But in the darkness of their despair, they should remember that resistnace is not a sign of defeat, but rather evidence that women are challenging a worldview that now belongs to an earlier era of human history Environmental racism (288) - The definition of environmental racism is inequality — in the form of racism linked with environmental factors and practices — that causes disproportionate distress on minority communities. It is a heavily debated phenomenon incorporating a hybrid of environmental concerns and human welfare. [1] Environmental racism is often used to describe specific policies, events, and outcomes in which minority communities are targeted for the placement of polluting industries and factories. Environmental racism can also be connected to the exclusion of minority groups from the decision-making process in their communities. [2] - differential exposure to environmental problems on the part of marginalized peoples has fostered an environmental justice movement to resist these inequities that occur as a result of lack of econoic, social and political power - environmental racism reflects the fact that people of colour in the united states are disproportianately exposed to toxic environments due to the dumping of chemical and other waste on native american lands and in urban areas where more people of colour live - environmental waste tends not to be dumped in areas populated by people of high socioeconoic status or where property values are high - the dumping of radioactive waste at Yucca mountain, nevada, despite the impact of this on the western shoshone tribe that considers the mountain sacred, is a case in point - people in developing countries who work in factories and sweatshops within the global economy (especially young women who are often hired because they are cheap, dispensable and easily controlled workers) are particularily at risk for occupational disease Reproductive choice (290-309) READ MORE - involves being able to have safe and affordable birthing and parenting options; reliable safe and affordable birth control technologies; freedom from forced sterilization; and the availability of abortion - a key aspect of reproductive rights is the extent to which women can control their reproduction and therefore shape the quality and character of their lives - despite the importance of reproductive choice, it is increasingly under attack in contemporary society. For women of colour in particular, as the reading ―women of colour and their struggle for reproductive justice‖ by silliman and colleagues emphasizes, ―resisting population control while simultaneously claiming their right to bodily self- determination, including the right to contraception or abortion or to have children, is at the heart of their struggle for reproductive control‖ - another key aspect is the right to assisted reproductive technologies for infertile couples. Jennifer Parks discusses these technologies in the reading ―rethinking radical politics in the context of assited reproductive technology‖. In response to debates about whether these technologies are ultimately good or bad for women, she makes the case that they are neither inherenty liberating nor entirely oppressive. Rather, the consequences of these technologies can be understood only by considering how they are actually taken up within specific cultures - Sterilization Practices à includes tubal ligation (tubes tied) and hysterectomy (uterus is removed). A less invasive alternative to tubal ligation is the springlike device called essure that blocks the fallopian tubes. Women on welfare are more likely to be sterilized than women who are not, and women of colour and women in non industrialized countries are disproportiately more likely to receive this procedure. One of the unfortunate legacies of reproductive history is that some women have been sterilized against their will, usually articulated as ―against their full, informed consent. In 1970‘s it was learned that many poor women, especially women of colour and native American women in particular, as well as women who were mentally retarted or incarcerated, had undergone forced sterilization. - Parenting Options and Birth Control Technologies à in considering a reproductive choice, it is important to think about the motivations for having children as well as the motivations for limiting fertility. Childbirth is an experience that has been shared by millions of women the world over. Women have historically helped eachother during this time, strengthening family and kinship bonds and the ties of friendship. As the medical profession gained power and status and developed various technologies (forceps, for example), women‘s traditional authority associated with birthing was eclipsed by increasing medicalization of birthing. Again, the medicalization of childbirth regards birthing as an irregular episode that requires medical procedures, often including invasive forms of ―treatment‖. As these trends gained social power, women who could afford it started going to hospitals to birth their children instead of being attended at home by relatives, friends and midwives. Unfortunately, in these early days, hospitals were relatively dangerous places where sanitation was questionable and women in childbirth were attended by doctors who knew far les about birthing than did the midwives. A large number of pregnant women (espically women of colour) do not receive any healthcare at all, and a larger number still receive inadequate health care, some resorting to emergency rooms to deliver babies and having their first contact with the medical establishment at this time. As you can imagine, this scenario results in increased complication and potential unhealthy babies, and costs society much more financially than if routine health screening and preventative health care had been available. - Why might women want to control their fertility? The first and obvious answer concerns health. Over a women‘s reproductive life, she could potentially birth many children and be in a constant state of pregnancy and lactation. Such a regimin compromises maximum health. Second, birthing large numbers of children might be seen as irresponsible in the context of world population and a planet with finite resources. Third, birthing is expensive and the raising of children even more expensive. Fourth, given that in contemporary western societies women have primary responsibility for childcare that that the organization fo mothering tends to isolate women in their homes, it is important to consider the emotional effects of constant child rearing. And, finally, if women had unlimited children, the constant caretaking of these children would preempt women‘s ability to be involved in other productive work outside the home. This ―indirect cost‖ concept involves the loss or limitation of financial autonomy, work-related or professional identity, and creative and ego development. - Although today women are as likely to have children as they ever were, three facts stand out. First, the average family size decreased as the twentieth century progressed. Second, women are having children later in life than they did in earlier times in our society. Both of these trends are related to changes in health care technologies that have raised health care standards and encouraged parenting at later ages, the availability of birth control and abortion, and the increase in women‘s education and participation in paid labour with subsequent postponement of marriage and childreading. Third, there was a significant increase in the number of children born to single women, among non white populations since the 1970‘s. Specifically the percentage of US households headed by a single party has nearly doubled since 1970. approx. a third of all babies are born to unmarried women who may or may not be partnered. Unwed births, especially among teenagers, may result from a lack of knowledge and support about reproduction and contraception in the context of an increasing sexually active population, poverty and lack of opportunities for education and employment, failure of family and school systems to keep young people in school, the increased use of alcohol and other drugs, and increasing restrictions on access to abortion services. - Although birth control technologies have been around for generations, the issue for women has been the control of, and access to, these technologies. Patriarchal societies have long understood that to control women‘s lives it is necessary to control their reproductive options. In this way, information about, access to, and denial of birth control technologies are central aspects of women‘s role and status in society. - In 1873, the Comstock act made it illegal to send any ―obscene, lewd‖ materials through the mails, including contraceptive devices and information. In addition to banning contraceptives and ―quack‖ medicines, this act also banned the distribution of information on abortion. The state and federal restrictions became known as the Comstock laws. Women understood that the denial of contraception kept them in the domestic sphere and more importantly exposed them to repetitive and often dangerous pregnancies. In response, a social movement emerged that was organized around reproductive choice. Called ―voluntary motherhood‖, this movement not only involved giving women access to birth control, but also worked to facilitate reproduction and parenting under the most safe, humane and dignified conditions. Margaret sanger was a leader of this movement and in 1931 wrote ―my fight for birth control‖ about her decision to become involved in the struggle for reproductive choice. - One unfortunate aspect, however, was the early birth control movement‘s affiliation with an emerging eugenics movement that argued only the ―fit‖ should be encouraged to reproduce. Birth control was therefore necessary to prevent the ―unfit‖ from unlimited reproduction. The ―unfit‖ included poor and immigrant populations, the feeble minded, and criminals. Using a rationale grounded in eugenics, birth control proponents were able to argue their case while receiving the support of those in power in society. Nonetheless, although contraceptive availability varied from state to state, it was not until a supreme court decision in 1965 (Griswold v. conneticut) that married couples were allowed legal rights to birth control. The court‘s ruling said that the prohibition of contraceptive use by married people was constitutional in that it violeated the constititutional right to privacy. This legal right was extended to single people in 1972 and to minors in 1977. - Today there are a variety of contraceptive methods available. Their accessibility is limited by the availability of information about them, by cost, and by health care providers‘ sponsorship. - Other than tubal ligation where women are surgically sterilized and vasectomy where men are, birth control methods include, first, the intrauterine device (IUD), a small t shape device made of plastic that prevents implantation of fertilized egg. Available only by prescription and must be inserted by a clinician, and are a popular form of reversible birth control. Second are hormone regulation contraceptive methods. The pill is an oral contraceptive that contains a combination of two hormones: progestin and estrogen. It became widely available in the united states in the 1960s and quickly became the most popular means of contraception despite side effects. Next are the barrier methods. The diaphragm, cervical cap, and shield are barrier devices that are insterted into the vagina before sexual intercourse, fit over the cervix, and prevent sperm from entering the uterus. Diaphragm or cervical cap must be obtained by a physician or clinic. Condoms are the only thing that prevent against STD. Finally, emergency contraception (plan b), is now available. Was approved by the FDA in 1997.A new England journal of medicine study reported that about 1.7 million unintended pregnancies a year might be prevented if EC was more readily available. The FDA has approved Plan B for over the counter sales for individuals aged 17 years and older, but women still face barriers when ttrying to obtain the medication in some communities. Plan B is expensive, making some women unable to afford it. Current debate on EC concerns ―refusal clauses‖ or the rights of pharmacists to deny medication such as plan B based on their personal ideology. The national abortion federation reports that approx 13000 women in the US become pregnant because of rape each year. Timely access to ES ensures that rape survivors have the right to avoid additional trauma associated with pregnancy. Six states have passed laws allowing a pharmacist the right to refuse to dispense EC and other contraception drugs and five have passed legislation requiring pharmacists to fill or transfer certain prescriptions. - Abortion à although induced abortion is one part of reproductive choice, it has dominated discussion of this topic. Pro- choice advocates believe that abortion is women‘s choice, women shold not be forced to have children against their will, a fertilized ovum should not have all the legal and moral rights of personhood, and all children should be wanted children. Pro-choice advocates tend to believe in a women‘s right to have an abortion even though they might not make that decision for themselves. Pro-life advocates believe that human personhood begins at conception and a fertilized ovum or fetus as the right to full moral and legal rights of personhood. They believe that rights about the sanctity of human life outweigh the rights of mothers. Some pro-life advocates see abortion as murder and doctors and other health care workers who assist with abortion as accomplices to a crime. - According to a 2010 gallup pole, this is the third consecutive poll since may 2009 showing more people in the US are pro life than pro choice, with more men than women advocating pro life views. Although almost a quarter of all respondents said abortion should be legal under any circumstances and about a fifth said it should be illegal under any circumstances, most are in the middle believing that abortion should be limited but available under some circumstances. Another way to look at this is the relatively few Americans are positioned at either extreme of the spectrum of beliefs. Despite this ―middle ground‖ position among most people, the public debate on abortion tends to be highly polarized. - Although most feminists consider themselves pro choice, there are exeptions, most notably the feminists for life of America organization. Their motto is ―pro woman pro life‖ and they advocate opposition to all forms of violence, characterizing abortion as violence. Issues associated with feminist pro choice politics include moral responsibilities associated with requiring the birth of unwanted children, because the forces attempting to deny women sage and legal abortions are the very same ones that cal for reductions in the social, medical, educational and economic support of poor children. Does ―pro life‖ include being for life of these children once they are born? Pro life politicians tend to vote against increased spending for services for women and families. The second issue raised includes the moral responsibilities involved in requiring women to be mothers against their will. If you do grant full personhood rights to a fertilized ovum or fetus, then at what point to these rights take priority over the rights of a fully established person, the mother? What of fathers rights? Third, several studies have shown that between two thirds and three quarters of all women accessing abortions would have an illegal abortion if it were illegal. Illegal abortions have high mortality rate issues. - These restrictions on safe, legal abortions are discussed below. Refusal clauses permit a broad range of individuals and/or institutions - hospitals etc. to refuse to provide, pay for, counsel or even five referrals for medical treatments that they personally oppose. Some women may not want to involve parents in the decision to remove a pregnancy. Mandatory parental involvement laws do not solve the problem of troubled family communication, they only exacerbate a potentially dangerous situation. This has resulted in illegal and self induced abortions. There has also been a significant increase in crisis pregnancy centers (CPC) that claim to offer comprehensive services but are actually focused on reducing abortions. currently it is estimated there are between 2500 and 4000 CPCs in the US. Many of these are unregulated and unlicenses and may not be required to follow privacy protection laws required of physicians and comprehensive health clinics. They use deceptive tactics to milsead women about pregnancy-related issues, making false claims such as that abortion causes breast cancer or mental illness or can lead to serility. Many CPCs recieve state and federal funding and a recent study found that 87 percent of them provide false and unscientific information about abortion. Eugenics (290) - the racist and classist idea that certain groups have more right to reproduce than others, a belief and social practice called eugenics. The science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics. Norplant (297, 344) - a contraceptive device that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm and realeases a small amount of the hormone progestin through the inserted capsules for up to 5 years. As a result of lawsuits associated with unanticipated side effects, the maker of norplant no longer markets this device in the US, although it is available worldwide. Population groups and mainstream pro-choice organizations greeted the development as an expansion of reproductive choice for women. women of colour have critized norplant (subdermal implants) and depo-provera (injectables) the two methods most aggresively marketed to young african american, latina and native american women. In 1991, NBWHP, NAWHERC, NLHO issued warnings of the potential for norplant abuses. Their concerns were validated merely two days after the contraceptive implant was approved by the US food and drug administration, when the philidephia inquirer newspaper published an editiorial advocating its use ―as a tool in the fight against black poverty‖. although the newspaper later apologized, judges and state legislatures continued to advocate for the use of norplant among disadvantaged women. Pro-life advocate (301) - believe that human personhood begins at concpetion and a fertilized ovum of fetus has the right to full moral and legal rights of personhood. They believe that rights about the sanctity of human life outweigh the rights of mothers. Some see abortion as murder and doctors and other health care workers who assit in providing abortion services as accomplices to a crime. Roe v. Wade (301-4) - In the years since Roe v. Wade, the supreme court ruling legalizing abortion in the US, thousands of American women‘s lives have been saved by access to legal abortion. It is estimated that before 1973, 1.2 milion US women resorted to illegal abortions each year and that botched illegal abortions caused as many as 5000 annual deaths. Barriers to abortion endanger women‘s health by forcing women to delay the procedure, compelling them to carry unwanted pregnancies to term, and leading them to seek unsafe and illegal abortions. - About half of US pregnancies, more than 3 million each year, are unintended. By age 45, more than half of all American women will have experienced an unintended pregnancy and about one third will have had an abortion. 9 in 10 abortions occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and over half of all abortions take place in the first 8 weeks. Abortion rate is highest among women aged 20 – 24. African American women are three times more likely to have an abortion than white women, and Latinas are twice as likely, reflecting in part socioeconomic issues associated with raising children and possibly reduced adoption opportunities for children of colour compared with white children. Approx. two thirds of all abortions are obtained by never married women and the same number intend to have children in the future - In the US, abortion was not limited by law or even opposed by the church until the nineteenth century. In 1800 there were no states with anti abortion laws and abortion was relatively common occurrence through the use of pills, powders and mechanical devices. Generally, abortion was allowed before ―quickening‖, understood as the time when the fetus‘s movements could be felt by the mother. Between 1821 and 1840, 10 states enacted laws that included provisions on abortion, although in five these applieid only to abortions after quickening. Between 1840 to 1860 the numbers of abortions increased such that some scholars estimate one abortion for ever five or six live births. According to James Mohr‘s ―Abortion in America‖, abortion became more popular with married women and those of the middle and upper classes. This alarmed physicians in the rapidly growing medical profession. Mohr explains that physicians‘ concerns centered on ethical issues, scientific reasons to question the importance of quickening, the dangers of abortion for women, and the desire of physicians to rid themselves of some competitors such as midwives and others who helped provide abortions. He suggests that physicians were the major force in the enactment of laws against abortion in the nineteenth century, working through the American medical association to campaign to get state legislatures to further restrict abortion. Between 1860 and 1880, over 40 laws restricted abortion and remained largely intact for a century. Abortion prior to quickening became less visible and the Comstock laws prevented information about them. Abortions continued by performing the procedure but calling it something else and in some states they were performed to save the mother‘s health and life. Illegal abortions were rampant ans often unsafe. By 1860, the catholic church officially had ruled against abortion despite the fact that, as explained, religious objections were not at the root of anti abortion legislation. By the mid twentieth century resistance to abortion laws had increased such that in 1959, the American law institute proposed revisions used by a number of states. It is important to understand that the supreme court decisions of the 1970s were not a modern weakening of moral standards but a return to what many Americans believed and practiced in the past. - In 1969 planned parenthood supported the repeal of anti abortion laws. Then in 1970 hawaii and new york repealed their abortion legislation, but a 1972 referendum in Michigan to do so was defeated. Change came in 1973 when the US supreme court ruled that in Row v. Wade what a texas anti-abortion statute was unconstitutional and overturned all states‘ bans on abortion. The ruling used in the Griswold v. Conneticut decision in arguing that abortion must be considered part of privacy rights in deciding whether to have children. It did not attempt to decide the religious or philosophical issue about when life begins. The court did agree that, under the law, a fetus is not treated as a legal person with civil rights. The ruling went on to divide pregnancy into three equal stages, or trimesters, and explained the differential interventions that the state could make during these different periods. The Roe v. Wade ruling held that the US constitution protects a women‘s decision to terminate her pregnance and allowed first trimester abortions on demand. It declared that only after the fetus is viable, capable of sustained survival outside the woman‘s body with or without artifical aid, may the states control abortin. Abortions necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother must be allowed howver, even after fetal viability. Prior to viability, states can regulate abortion, but only if the regulation does not impose a ―substantial obstacle‖ in the path of women. - There has been a general chipping away of women‘s rights to abortion since Roe v. Wade. Subsequent legislative and legal challenges have made abortion access more difficult and therefore dangerous, but there has been no ruling yet that says life begins at conception and therefore no overturning of roe v. wade. Activities limiting legal rights to abortion currently include laws restricting poor and young women‘s access, refusal clauses, bans on rarely occurring late term abortion methods that protect women‘s health, violent tactics that intimidate doctors and patients, and pregnancy criss centers that mislead women by purporting to offer full services but work to mislead and dissuade women from accesing an abortion. - if the supreme court were to overturn roe v. wade, abortion policy would revert to the states. Currently four states have laws imposing near-total criminal bans on abortion if roe vs. wade were to be overturned. Fistula (329) - The most common type of fistula involving these systems is a vesicovaginal fistula, in which the woman's vagina is connected to the urinary bladder. This causes leakage of urine from the vagina and results in frequent vaginal and bladder infections. Fistulas may also develop between the vagina and the large intestine (a enterovaginal fistula) so that feces leaks from the vagina. Although both these types of fistulas are uncommon in the developed world, they are common in poor developing countries and result from long, difficult labor and childbirth, especially in very young girls. As a result, they are sometimes referred to as obstetric fistulas. Some experts suggest that in parts of Africa, as many as 3-4 women develop these fistulas out of every 1,000 births. Others estimate that as many as 2 million women worldwide are living with unrepaired obstetric fistulas. If left unrepaired, obstetric fistulas cause women to constantly leak urine and feces. As a result, they become social outcasts, causing them extreme hardship and psychological trauma. - the lifelong consequence of obstructed labor can include fistulae (rectovaginal and vesicovaginal), with urinary or fecal incontince or both as well as structural damage to reproductive organs. Often fistulae-linked incontinence leads to ostracism and social isolation for these young women. Nuclear family (355) - in the united states there is no normal family, though such tends to be constructed as the nuclear family in the middle class white married heterosexual couple with children. Nuclear family implies a married couple residing together with their children, and it can be distinguished from an extended family in which a group of related kin, in addition to parents and children, live together in the same household. US census bureau data in 2010 reveal that nuclear families in the US have dropped below 25 percent of all households and that multiple family forms now rule in US society today. Family values (359-60) - the ongoing political debate concerning ―family values‖ illustrates how supporters of the status quo (existing power relations) in society have made the term family values synonymous with traditional definitions of the family and its role in scoeity. this includes seeing the women defined in terms of their domestic and reproductive roles, men as the rightful sources of power and authority, and married heterosexual families as the only legitimate family. many people are offended by this narrow construction of family and its association with a repressive political agenda, and reject such values as their family values. determining what kinds of families get to be counted as real families and determining whose family values are used as standards for judging others are heated topics of debate in the US. It is also important to note, however, that not all lesbian etc comitted couples advocated marriage for themselves or endorse the legal recognition of gay marriage as a primary goal of their movements. they recognize the right to equal domestic partnerships and the basic economic benefits that come with that, but understand marriage as a key feature of a hetero-sexist culture that underpins the ery discrimination they experience. The notion of family with all its connotations of love, security, connectedness and nurturing, is a prime target for nostalgia in the 21st century. this is especially pertinent as economic forces transform the ways families function and we yearn for a return to the traditional family, with its unconditional love and acceptance, to escape from society. These ideologies present a false dichotomization between public (society) and private (family) spheres. Motherhood (369-71) - scholars who research the family identify three types of childcare associated with mothering:activities to meet children‘s basic physical needs, work that attends to children‘s emotional, cognitive and regreational needs, and activities for maintaining children‘s general well-being. In the reading ―hardscrabble salvation‖ Joel preston smith writes about hte ways he learned of the importance of hard work from his mother. as a single mother with a disability, she refused to allow poverty to crush her spirit and raised her son to live courageously. mothers tend to be involved with children more than fathers in all these ways except being involved with their recreational activities. Our understanding of motherhood is conflated with notions of innate, biologically programmed behaviour and expectations of unconditional love and nurturance. In other words, even though the meanings associated with motherhood vary historically and culturally, women are expected to want to be mothers, and mothers are expected to take primary responsibility for the nurturing of their children. to mother implies nurturing comforting and caretaking. In contemporary US society, there is a cultural construction of a normal motherhood that is class and race based, and sees mothers as devoted to and sacrificng for their children. in addition, as global societies have developed and the expectations associated with the role of motherhood have been framed by patterns of consumption in postindustrial societyis of the global north, the role of the perfect middle class mother has transformed to include managing a child‘s life and providing social and educational opportunities as well as managing their own careers. This view on mothers has justified the enourmous amount of work women do in the home and encouraged girls to set their sights on babies rather than other forms of work, or girls today, babies and work. It has justified the types of labor women have traditionally done in the labor force as well as the military. Close relationship between womanhood and mothering has caused pain for women who are not able to have children as well as for those who have intentially chosen not to have any. Contempoprary constructions of mothering tend to bre created around a mythical norm that reflects a white, abled, middle class heterosexual and young adult experience. This is because society has different expectations of mothers depending on class and culture and other differences at the same time that these difference create different attitudes toward the experience of mothering. For example, although society often expects poor mothers to work outside the home rather than accept welfare, middle class mothers might be made to feel guilty for abandoning their babies to daycare centers. motherhood for single mothers is often constructed through societal notions of stigma. Lesbian mothers in particular have to deal with two mutually exclusive catoegories that have been constructed as contradictory: lesbian and mother. this ilustrates the narrow understandings of motherhood as well as the steroteypes associated with being a mother and with being a lesbian. Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) (358, 380) - passed in 1996 and subsequent state mandates have restricted the legality of unions beyond the male/husband and female/wife relationship. Congress passed it in response to a hawaii law that granted same-sex couples the right to marry (the law was later overturned by the hawaii state legislature). Since then, thirty seven states have passed their own DOMAs. United States federal law that defines marriage as the legal union of one man and one woman. The law passed both houses of Congress by large majorities and was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on September 21, 1996. Under the law, no U.S. state or political subdivision is required to recognize a same-sex marriage treated as a marriage in another state. Section 3 of DOMA codifies the non-recognition of same-sex marriage for all federal purposes, including insurance benefits for government employees, Social Securitysurvivors' benefits, and the filing of joint tax returns. Hip hop culture ( 461, and 483-4) rap music has been influential in recent decades as a critique of racial cultural politics. originating in african american urban street culture of the late 1970s, rap was influenced by rythym and blues and spread to television, fashion, film and music videos. at the same time that the rap industry has been able to raise the issue of racism poverty and social violence in the context of its endosement of black nationalism, rap has also perpetuated misogyny and violence against women in its orientation and musical lyrics. there are black women performers in hip hop and new female rappers are recieving much more attention, but their status is far below male. - economy of hip hop runs around the sale of alchohol, focuses on sex and loud music, violence with shootings, important for women to dress sexy, men have to keep a front of toughness, power and control at all times. No women dancing in cages, no drugs no violence and misogyny. Zines (468, 498-501) - a way for women to express their voices through publishing, quick, cheap, cut-and-paste publications that have sprung up both in print form and on the web in recent years. these publications, which range in quality, often provide a forum for alternative views on a wide variety of subjects, especially pop culture. as alison piepmeier explores the way zines provide an opportunity for young feminists to resist ideas in the mainstream publications that sustain women‘s subordiation. piepmeier explors the way zines have allowed girls and young women to both critique and embrace girlishness and femininity. she suggest zine authors focus on the pleasures of girlhood even while they critique racist, heteropatriarchal social structures. - they expose the dangers of being a girl or women in a patriarchal society, also often engage with familiar configurations of girlishness and femininity, playfully reclaiming and reworking them. this has become an identifiable grrrl zine visual style: the kinderwhore or ―kitten with a whip‖ aesthetic in which girlish images are given a twist or recontextualized in ways that change their meaning to be tough or resistant. In 1990 Sarah Dyer‘s famous hello kitty anarchist became almost ubiquitous imagine in zines. girlish doodles in conjunction with discussions of weighty subjects like sexual assaut. These reframings of femininity are examples of zines ―insubordinate creativity‖ and they fucntion as challenges to corporate culture industries that position girlhood in terms of passivity and consumption. rather than simply reject sexist culture, many zines are engaged in the project of identifiying the pleasures of femininity. This work is sometimes seen as ―not feminist enough‖ because it can be understood as complicit with patriarchal gender roles and indeed corporate culture. During the early 1990s hey day of the Riot Grrrl movement, ―girl power‖ quickly became a marketing strategy, even while it was being developed as a tool for resistance.Like hooks, these zines and their creators succest that a dichotomous framing of feminism‘s gender interventions, in which feminists are supposed to voice monolithic opposition to corporate culture, is inadequate. These zines are playing in the spaces between resistance and cimplicity and are such are creating third wave tactics. Bust tries to broaden the terrain of women emphasizing the pleasures of more stereotypically male activities like nonmonogamous sex, physical agression and swearing. Some covers provoke discomfort that keeps the reader from the passive consumption mindset produced by mainstream capitalist media. Best struggled when it became a magazine rather than scruffy informal publications that came by mail. The zines offer a contradictory stance: yest, girlhood and womanhood are dangerous, and yes they are culturally constructed for particular political ends, but i can do smething different with them and enjoy them. Zines do not offer a coherent political standoint, they don‘t fully undermine mainstream gender performances. Male gaze (459-60) - feminist film theorist laura mulvey identifies the ―male gaze‖ as a primary motif for understanding gender in filmmaking. movies are essentially made through and for the male gaze and fulfill a voyeuristic desire for men to look at women as objects. viewers are encouraged to ―see‖ the movie through the eyes of the male protagonist who carries the plot forward. In other words, the focus is on the production of meaning in a film, how it imagines a viewing subject, and the ways the mechanisms of cinematic production shape the representation of women and marginalized others, reinforcing intersecting systems of inequality and privelege. mulvey makes the point that traditional feminine subjects in film are bearers of meaning and not meaning making. meaning making in hollywood tends to incorporate heteronormative themes that reinforce gender ranking through such genres ad gangster films, action films and westerns that celebrate heterosexual masculine power. These films portray heterosexuality as the dominant theme respresenting masculinities. Probably the best genre of film in which to observe gender is the romantic comedy or drama. They have become the de facto film produced for female audiences that shape notions of multifaceted femininities. their heteronormative formula reinforces myths about romantic love and marriage as the most important keys to a woman‘s happiness. this popular and seductive genre sometimes contains glimpses challenging heteropatriarchy. Other genres of films are also revealing in terms of norms about gender. Slasher films and horror movies are often spectacular in terms of their victimization fo women. Pornography is an extreme example of the male gaze and the normalization of violence against women. Films help to maintain male privledge. Sexting (493-6) - The creating, sharing and forwarding of sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images by minor teens. Many teens now use their phones not just for calling, bu talso to access the internet and to take and share photos and videos. In the past year press coverage discussions have focused on how teens are using or misusing cellphones as part of their sexual interactions and explorations. Both laws and law enforcement practices around sexting are emerging to deal with the issue and they vary significantly from jurisdictions. some law enforcement officers and district attorneys have begun prosecuting teens who created and shared such images under laws generally reserved for producers and distributors of child pornography. In pennsylvania, a local district attorney threatened to charge 17 students who were either pictured in images or found with provacative images on their cellphones with the prosecution under child pornography laws unless they agreed to participate in a five week after school program and probation. In ohio, an 18 year old was listed as a registered sex offender for the next 25 years after he was convicted of sending nude imagges of his 16 year old girlfriend after an argument. Has no relation to gender: girls and boys are equally as likely to send a sexual photo. Sometimes photos are sent between romantic partners in lieu of or in prelude to sexual activity. For some it is an experimental phase for teens who aren‘t ready for sex yet. For some it is part of a regular relationship. These pictures between romantic partners can easily be forwarded to friends, classmates and beyond. Sexually suggestive images sent to the privacy of the phone have become a form of relationship currency, there is a lot of pressure on girls to share nude pics. Some teens avoid it because of their concerns about legality and the potential for public release of the photos, some brand them as innappropriate, teens make fine distinctions in what is acceptable and what is unacceptable in transmitted images. Gendered violence (503-9) - an important public health and human rights issue. Implies that harm evolves from the imbalance in power between women and men. in most societies around the world, gendered violence usually occurs when masculine entitlements produce power that manifests itself in harm and injury (physical, sexual, emotional/psychological) toward women. Women are especially vulnerable in interpresonal relationships; most violence against them occurs n their own homes. women are 10 times more likely than men to be victimized by an intimate partner. However, because violence is about the exercise of power over another person, both men and women can perpetrate violence and it occurs in both heterosexual and gay relationships. the range of gendered violence includes acts of intimidation and harrassment (talking, voyeurism, oling chat room, street, work harrassment, road rage, obscene phone calls), forcing someone to watch or participate in pornography, forced prostitution and other sex work, emotional/psychological, physcial and sexual abuse (includes rape and attempted rape) and any other coercive act that harms and violates another person. men are likely to suffer physical violence at the hands of another man. In childhood and adolescence, males are especially at risk for suffering physical abuse by female and male caretakers and sexual abuse by other males. Given the norms about masculine invulnerability, it is often hard for boys and men to talk about sexual abuse and seek help. as a result, men are more likely than women to be in denial about such experiences, and some men who have been abused try to ―master‖ the abuse by identifying with the source of their victimization. Because intimate violence is rarely reported, it is hard to get accurate stats. Researchers have found that girls suffer more from relationship violence, emotionally and physically. they are more likely than males to have serious injuries and report being terrified. In contrast, male victims seldom fear violence by their girlfriends and often say the attacks did not hurt or they found them amusing. The attention to the widespread issue of gendered violence has resulted in the Un capaigns to end violence agains women. Gendered violence is specifically linked to the process of globalization, because these proceses often heighten problems associated with gender inequalities in relationships, families and communities at the same time that they often increase women‘s poverty and therefore their vulnerability. violence against women must be understood in the context of socially constructed notions of gender. if boys are raised to hide emotion, see sensitivity as a weakness, and view sexual potency as wound up with interpresonal power, and girls are raised to be dependant and support masculine entitlment, then interpresonal violence would be no surprise. women are raised in ways that may encourage victimization. violence by men is a power issue and must be seen as related to masculine dominance in society generally as represented in interpresonal relationships and in the control of political systems that address crime and create policy. entitlements associate with masculinity produce the rape spectrum. genered sexual volence is often related to the ways violence is erotized and sexuality is connected to violence. Must also understand violence against women in terms of the normalization of violence in society. Stalking (505-9) - trend is the increase in stalking behaviour directed at women. Stalking can be defined as the act of a person who, on more than one occasion, follows, pursues or harasses another person and by actively engaging in a pattern of conduct, causes victims to believe the stalker will cause physical harm or mental distress to them. Approx 13 percent of women on college campuses report being stalked and 4 out of 5 women know their stalker. estimated that 1 in 12 women will experience stalking in their lifetime. The most common consequence for women is fear and emotional and psychological trauma. Pornography (524) - involves the sexualization and objectification of women‘s bodies and parts of bodies for entertainment value. according to Catharine MacKinnon, pornography can be defined as graphic, sexually explicit subordination of women through pictures and/or words. she says pornography includes one or more of: women presented as dehumanized sexual objects, things, commodoties, shown as enjoying humiliation, pain or sexual assualt, tied up, mutilated or physically hurt, depicted in postures or positions of sexual submission or servility, shown with body parts including though not limited to vagina, breasts, buttox, exhibited such that women are reduced to those parts, women penetrated by animals or objects, and women presented in scenarios of degradation, humiliation or torture shown as filthy or inferior, bleeding, burised or hurt in a context that makes these conditions sexual. the use of men, women or children or transsexuals in the place of women is also pornography. because a person has consented to being harmed, abused or subjected to coercion does not alter the degrading character of the behaviour. Ranges from soft-core to hard-core. Snuff films are illegal became women are actually murdered in the making of these films. There is also the issue of internet prostitution. Sexual freedom requires sexual justice and porography is violence of this justice rather than expression of it. Sexual assault (511) - can be sexually assaulted without being raped. sxual assualt can be defined as any sexual contact without consent and/or that involves the use of force. Like rape, sexual assault is an act of power, control and domination. the terms can get confusing because sexual assault, sexual abuse and rape are often used interchangebly. rape is a form of sexual assault and sexual abuse, but sexual assault does not imply rape. the sexual abuse of children is often termed molestation. although the rates of rape are high, sexual assault rapes are generally even higher. 95 percent of reported sexual assaults are against women. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)(550-2) - 1923 was introduced into congress to counter the inadequacies of the fourteenth amendment concerning women and citizenship. The ERA affirms that both women and men hold equally all of the rights guaranteed by the US constitution. it would provide a remedy for gender discrimination for both women and men, and at a constitutional level, provide equal legal status to women for the first time in our country‘s history. It was rewritten in the 1940‘s to read: ―equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex‖ and it eventually passed congress (almost 50 years later) in 1972. Unfortunately, it failed to be ratified by the states and suffered a serius defeat in 1982. The most important effect of the ERA would have been to clarify the status of gender discrimination for the courts, whose decisions still show confusion about how to deal with such claims. for the first time, sex would have been a suspect classification like race. it would require the same high level of strict scrutiny and have to meet the same high level of justification -- a necessary relation to a compelling state interest -- as the classification of race. Although survey after survey showed overwhelming public support for the ERA among women and men, it was oficially defeated on june 30, 1982 when it failed to be ratified by the states. it fell three states short of the 38 states needed for ratification. Although the ERA continues to be introduced into each session of congress, passage of the amendment has yet to regain the momentum it did during the 1970s. In order for it to be fully amended, two- thirds of each house in congress must pass it first, followed by its ratification by the 38 states. as opposition to the ERA grew, some states retracted their ratification. Many years later, ratification efforts continue, with women and men in many unratified states working under the ―three-state strategy‖. this strategy argues that because there was no actual time limit for ratification in the original ERA, the amendment remains oly three states short of official ratification. opponents mistakenly claim that it is anti-family and it would deny a women‘s right to be supported by her husband and encourage women to desert motherhood. there was also worry that it would legislate abortion and gay and lesbian rights as well as send women into combat. the media sensationalized the issue and did not accurately report about what the ERA would ans would not do. most feminist leaders say that we would be better off if it had been ratified. they would have recieved better opportunities for equality and would have been supported by stronger laws fighting gender discrimination in employment, education and other areas of society. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (522, 549) - 1979, the most extensive international instrument dealing with the rights of women. although violence against women is not specifically adressed in the convention, except in relation to trafficking and prostitution, many of the anti-discrimination clauses protect women fro violence. states parties have agreed to a policy of eliminating discrimination against women, and to adopt legislative and other measures prohibiting all discrimination against women. In 1992, CEDAW, which monitors the implementation of this convention, fomally included gender-based violence under gender-based discrimination. general recommendation no. 19, adopted at the 11th session (june 1992) deals entirely with violence against women and the measures taken to eliminate such violence. as for health issues, it reccoments that states should provide support services for all victims of gender-based violence, including refuges, specially trained health workers, and rehabilitation and counselling service. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (341, 563) - president clinton in 1996. federal welfare reform policies such as family caps, institutionalized in this, deny additional benefits to women who have more children while receiving public assistance. Terminated the major source of welfare, Aid to Families with Dependant Children and replaced it with Temporary Assitance to Needy Families. no person could recieve welfare for more than 5 years. in addition, welfare was transferred to the state through a block grant system, allowing some states to set their own agenda for distribution of funds. not only have such policies failed to make low income families self sufficient, but they have kept wages low and undermined women‘s independance. Tokenism (561) - to satisfy affirmitive action responsbilities, all that needs to be done is to hire one or two women or minorities for dead end jobs. hiring women and minorities for positions that are terminal in terms of advancement does not satisfy the affirmative action goals. The same opportunities for eomployment and career advancement must exist for all individuals. Racism - Himani Bannerji's take on what defines the type of racism found in Canada is one that she has coined in the phrase "common sense racism". Why is this? Well it goes back to our ability to make invisible the problems found in our history and perhaps of greater concern, our ability not to see how we as individuals function to keep in place injustices in our daily lives. Or more directly, Bannerji holds us accountable for our behaviours as individuals that continue to hurt other groups identified by their ethnicity or race. As Bannerji, contends racism in Canada is everyday living. Even feminists, who are attuned to rooting out all forms of domination, can find themselves engaged in maintaining attitudes and behaviours seeped with racist undertones. Racism can be so difficult to see and so difficult to define in ourselves (we generally hate to think of ourselves as hurting others). Racism is not just about overt acts against an individual, it is also how racism is engrained in our policies and in the practise of laws. Racism determines who gets access to resources and under what conditions, who is blamed for problems or assumed to be a little less capable or human and therefore undeserving of privileges. Visibly who dominates most of Canada's professions, governments, law courts and our education systems? Racism quite simply is embedded into our political and social landscape. Racism is complicated and is made more complicated by colonialism which means an incoming foreign power asserts its values and way of life on others who are deemed different or in need of "civilizing". The dominating group always sees itself as bringing "civilizing" practises to the region (i.e. in the form of religion, governance, culture, etc.). It does so while always maintaining its own dominance. If colonized people fail to be successful under this system, the fault is not placed on the colonizer but on the people themselves for being "primitive" (refer back to your glossary at the beginning of this lecture). Racism, as Patricia Hill Collins defines it, is the "belief in the inherent superiority of one race over all other and thereby the right to dominance." As citizens participating in this system, we tend to go one of two ways. The first is to believe that the differences are so huge that nothing can be done to change the ways in which society operates or, in the second option, the belief that all people are exactly the same and the differences are only imagined. The result in both cases is to deny the identity of peoples and value to those identities but also to see people in terms of stereotypes. Compulsory heterosexuality - which refers to a social construct that leads people to believe that heterosexuality is the sole “natural” choice and that it is inevitable. Sexology - The study of human sexual behaviour and relationships. At the same time that colleges for women were exploding and romantic relationships were growing, a field of study emerged that would ultimately sanction the closing of opportunities for women — this field of study was sexology. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, sexologists began exploring sex and gender. They classified sexual behaviours and relationships on the basis of biological explanations. As you can probably guess, it was through the work of sexologists that romantic friendships were labelled "deviant" (as were homosexual ones). The results, from the studies undertaken by sexologists, corresponded to a rising concern among men that white middle class women were opting for careers rather than marriage and children. A drop in the birth rate among middle class women confirmed the fears of white men who worried that whites would soon be a minority amidst a growing immigrant population. Sexologists however, believed that homosexuality (remember homosexuality as such was illegal) was the outcome of inferior genes as opposed to the result of freely chosen deviant behaviour. They argued that if the genes of one's parents were weak so then would be genes of their children which could result in homosexuality. Strangely such a conclusion, gave lesbians and homosexuals a defence when they were being processed by the courts for "illegal" behaviours. They could claim innocence because such behaviour was biological and therefore not within their control. Throughout the 20th century the battle appears to be one of classifying the kind of deviance (biological, social, psychological) and therefore the response required by society. Lesbians would be defined, at various historical moments, as men in women's bodies, men haters, vampires, sick, predators among other hateful descriptions. For much of the 20th century, homosexuals were forced to exist underground (or in subcultures). They have been denied rights varying from the freedom to work and having access to their own biological children to being able to walk in the street with their partners. They have been accused of being traitors to governments, and in some cases even denied participation in feminist organizations! With the emergence of sexology and with major institutions and leaders (doctors, politicians primarily) supporting the findings of sexologists, lesbians began to feel extremely isolated. This alienation continued until the First World War when men in great numbers left for Europe. In their absence, women worked in the factories and finding a freedom they had not experienced previously. With this freedom, they could once again forge friendships with one another. Boston marriage - In light of the restricted life of a 19th century wife, it was not surprising that colleges offered some appealing opportunities for women. Lesbians could openly pursue a course that was more fulfilling than the rigid path offered by a Victorian marriage. A career allowed them to maintain their close relationships with a same sex partner and to forge an economic option that allowed them financial freedom. Women who committed themselves to both a career and a relationship with another woman were in what were called at the time "Boston marriages." Some of these women were teachers or heads of all girls' colleges. Other women created new careers in settlement work or sought professions in medicine. Medicalization - - process whereby normal functions of the body come to be seen as indicitave of disease. We can trace the onset of a process we know today as medicalization to the 19th century. It begins as medical doctors replace other kinds of health providers (like midwives). Medicalization was the process by which a medical model was used to define and justify social practices around all biological events from birth to death. Medicalization is a rather difficult concept to grasp. As an example, instead of seeing pregnancy as a natural event, medicalization imposed an interpretation that demanded that every stage of pregnancy must be chronicled to see if the pregnancy was advancing according to what physicians viewed as normal. The problem in this process was multi-fold. First, physicians had little knowledge about women�s bodies in any stage and rejected women's own ideas. They also viewed the white, middle class, female body as distinct in its characteristics and functions from those of women of colour or poor women. The end result of the process of medicalization was women's reliance on male doctors to inform them of what was normal and what was diseased. In the 19th century, white middle and upper class women who were pregnant were told by their physicians to stay at home, to rest and certainly not to think or be active since doing so would only zap the energy needed to grow the foetus. This medical model imposed on pregnancy a particular social response and identity for white women. The same message was not delivered to women of colour or immigrant women who could not afford a doctor anyway. With no other health professionals available, poor women and women of colour often suffered alone or died. Here's a breakdown of what medicalization involves: 1 Certain behaviours or conditions are given medical meaning — as either being healthy/normal or unhealthy/ill. 2 Medical practise functions to get rid of problematic experiences seen as deviant (homosexuality) so that all activities or experiences adhere to what is assumed as the social norm. For people to build trust in doctors, a medical language evolved that defined various physical or emotional occurrences as deviant, abnormal or unhealthy. Medical language that used scientific research as its basis grew to hold tremendous credibility in society as a whole. Patients in the 19th century were unlikely to question the veracity of scientific ideas. I would contend that as a society, we are only beginning to learn how science can be wrong. Few of us today would dare to ask questions about how the research project was conducted or whether the questions were pertinent, who the subjects were and under what conditions was the research conducted, or if the conclusions can actually be derived from the actual results. We have learned over the past century that our doctors and researchers carry into their practises biases on gender, race, sexuality and class. For a long time, the male body was viewed as the norm and therefore much of the research was conducted on men while assuming that the female body would have similar responses. I have found it both alarming and fascinating to see the countless ways in which researchers have discovered that the female body exhibits different symptoms in terms of heart attacks, or responds differently to drugs from the male body. Doctors silenced women's voices in the 19th century by not allowing women to contribute their own analysis. The relationship was developed on a hierarchy of gender, class and race. In all three categories, women were rendered less powerful and with less authority to speak and have their own knowledge validated. The consultation developed into a diagnostic process that did not include the patient's own contributions. Unfortunately, the dismissal of women's concerns and their knowledge occurred not only with medicalization but spread into other areas of women's lives. The process of devaluing women's intellectual potential continued in the 20th century in their public and private activities. Women who stayed at home were viewed as being out of touch, or incapable of comprehending social, political and economic issues. Betty Friedan discovered in the 1950s, that magazine publishers "dumbed down" articles believing women were not intellectually bright enough to read in-depth analyses. Physicians gained dominance in the 19th century with help of a medical establishment that backed their assessments. Doctors could call on medical schools, research centres and pharmaceutical companies to affirm their diagnoses and practices. Their influence, as doctors, spread far beyond where they actually had knowledge or the ability to help. In the 19th century, Canada did not have a universal health care system. Doctors were for those who could afford to pay for them not for those without resources. The rise in the medical profession followed the illegalization of midwives and other forms of health practitioners. For women, any activity or behaviour that stood outside the so-called norm of femininity was held suspect by doctors. Women who engaged in sports, or who might enjoy sex, women who wanted to read and learn and discuss ideas all received a negative response from the medical profession. Some doctors were known to have tested women's "asexuality" by manipulating their clitoris. Bill C-49 -Canada's "No Means No" law. It was the first bill passed by parliament that engaged in serious consultation with women who had been raped, women who counsel rape victims, lawyers and police. The core of this law states that when a woman says no to sex and the male proceeds — a sexual assault has occurred. This law is meant to protect women. However, in recent cases men have shown that they can exempt themselves from responsibility by claiming they understood the woman to have said "Yes". Praxis - political action taken to eliminate oppressive economic, social and cultural structures. Praxis may well be political action but it emerges from an analysis of issues and their connection to exploitative systems and structures. But praxis in order to be relevant must undergo consistent re-evaluation. For example, the feminist movement was radically altered by the voices of women of colour who demanded that racism be addressed. In this case, praxis and theory were dramatically transformed. A social movement is only ever effective if it is willing to look critically at itself. The same is true of individuals who must be open to learning from their experiences to adjust their analysis and their strategies. A serious danger is in universalizing analysis or in claiming a particular practise as right for all peoples and all times. (See Sharon D. Welch, Communities of Resistance and Solidarity. Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1985.) Privilege - Most certainly we have all had moments when we have feared speaking up. But privilege by virtue of one's gender, one's race and /or one's position in society (i.e. a university professor, a boss) tends to designate a greater or lesser right to speak. The more privilege one holds in society, the greater the likelihood that one will be taken seriously as both a speaker and writer. Privilege is very interesting not only in terms of actual authority but the ability of a privileged individual to choose when he or she might extend sympathy to others with lesser privilege, or choose to listen, or to act in response to the ideas of others. Those with greater privilege suffer no consequences if they ignore the concerns of others. The most critical feature of privilege is assuming that one's experience is the norm. Therefore the person of privilege can make decisions for others or impose actions, policies, or structures or particular systems assuming that he or she knows best for others without listening to alternative positions. This authority amounts to "This is what I do and I've been successful so therefore it will work for you if you do as I say and if you fail it is because you did something wrong." With privilege, the individual claims agency to act in the world. As in the case of a poor single mother, not everyone has privilege or the same amount of agency. Her voice will not carry the same authority as another who is more economically and socially established. Privilege is all about choosing whom you wish to listen to and when while censuring the voices of others. Who gets read, and who gets to be included in the canon of great writers, depends largely on who is making those kinds of decisions which is why women's voices have long been discounted. Women have been told in Western culture that they are the mothers of the nation without having the political power or influence to decide laws, policies or institutions. Women have been told that as potential mothers or wives there was no value in attending university. Women have received the message in countless ways in their intimate or in their work relationships, that their contributions are not as valuable as their husbands, or their bosses, or their male colleagues. Women have been dismissed as "great" writers. As long as women wrote according to the rules of males and fulfilled male expectations on content they could write in what was seen as "hobby" for women but certainly not a serious career. When we consider great western literature, which authors do we include in this canon? It is unlikely many people of colour and certainly not many women will make the list. Women writers have long been uncomfortable in writing a new kind of female character (or female/male relationship) into their stories fearing the criticism of men. And yet, men have been writing about women forever, it seems. The female "types" though have been narrow, confined too often to the evil temptress or the self-sacrificing good woman. The temptress threatens the security of not only the male but often times of a state. The good woman, on the other hand, encompasses all the virtues that keep her securely, II. Respond to each of the following short answer questions in review of these online and textbook reading topics: 1 Chapter Six/Lesson Ten: How do principles of equity, androcentrism, medicalization, stereotyping, and levels of corporate responsibility determine justice through women’s access to healthcare? equity - Medical institutions in the US provide different levels of service based on health insurance status and the general ability to pay. this issue of equity affects all aspects of health care, including access to fertility, contraceptive and abortion facilities. Poor women are less healthy than those who are better off, whether the benchmark is mortality, the prevalence of acute or chronic diseases, or mental health. Some people have better health care than others because of a two-tiered system that has different outcomes for those who can pay or who have health insurance and those who cannot afford to pay and do not have health insurance through their jobs or are not covered by welfare programs. This is a sepcial problem as health care costs continue to rise. Some states are providing less coverage for low-income people, a problem because in the US, there is not a nationalized health care system. In addition, women are more likely to be employed in part-time work or full time work without health insurance benefits. Uninsured children as at greater risk of experiencing health problems such as obesity, heart disease and asthma that continue to affect them as adults, resulting in increased costs for public health care services. Health club memberships and healthy foods are outside the reach of most low income people, who are also more likely to live in neighborhoods that provide unhealthy environments with unsafe water because of the presence of hazardous waste associated with industrial production and the dumping of toxic chemicals in neighborhoods with little economic and political power. (addressing this inequality is called environmental justice). Lower income women are more susceptible to chronic conditions as well as acute problems that might have been avoided had preventive care been available. this costs the state millions of dollars annualy and is not a fiscally responsbile way to provide health care services. women of colour are especially at risk for not having health care coverage and for recieving substandard care when they enter the system. They have higher mortality rates, higher rates of HIV infection and their reproducive health is threatened by limited access to basic reproductive health care, including family planning services and abortion care. Professional health related organizations, insurance companies, pharaceutical companies, and corporations representing other medical products and practices have enourmous influence over health politics as evidinced by president obama‘s struggles to provide healthcare reform. - globally, women‘s health access is one of the most important issues determining justice and equity for women. Focus on the effects of globalization. Woods addresses the health status of girls in sub-saharan africa and explores the interventions at the level of social and health policy and health care delivery. The HIV/AIDS global pandemic is also an important illustration of issues of gender and racial/ethical equity in this region of africa and other parts of the world. This is partly due to the lack of education about body and sexuality, access to birth control. Some policy‘s will focus on religious and abstinence based education that excludes condom use. This gag rule, imposed by presidents Reagan, George Bush, was lifted by obama in 2009 although it can be reinstated by another president at a later date. Androcentrism - where we say that mens bodies are the norm and where medical research has focused on men‘s bodies (mostly white men) and been overgeneralized to others. baseline data for heart monitors were based on middle aged white men, causing serius complications for patients who did not fit the description. Until recently, women were often not included in clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of drugs and other medical devices because it was though that women‘s hormonal cycling or other factors peculiar to being female might constitute variables that could skew trial results. it was declared that excluding women protected them, because a woman might be pregnant or the drug might prevent future fertility. drug companies did not want to get sued. recently it has become increasingly clear that research from male only trials may not apply equally to women or may not provide data on important effects of drugs on women. originally, researchers believed most sex differences in terms of reactions to drugs were most likely a result of differences in hormones, height and weight. Additionally, more money has been spent on diseases that are more likely to afflict men. Related to this is the notion of ―anatomy is destiny‖ whereby female physiology and especially reproductive anatomy is seen as central in undestanding women‘s behaviour. Social norms about femininity have come to guide medical and scientific ideas about women‘s health and female genital organs have long been seen as sources of special emotional as well as physical health problems. In terms of women as health care providers, androcentrism has supported sexism and encouraged systems where men have more positions of power and influence in the healthcare system. Although nursing is still overwhelmingly a feminine occupation, more women are becoming physicians, even though some prestigious specialities are still dominated by men. it remains tobe seen whether this increase in female physicians will change the face of medicine as we know it. Medicalization - the process whereby normal functions of the body come to be seen as indicative of disease. This tends to be the model by which modern medicine works. this affects women in two ways. one, because women have more episodic changes in their bodies as a result of childbearing (e.g. menstruation, lactation) they are more at risk for medical personnel interrupting these natural processes as problematic. Note how this tends to reinforce the argument that biology is destiny. two, medicalization supports business and medical technologies. It tends to work against preventive medicine and encourages sophisticated medical technologies to “fix” problems after they occur. medical services are dominated by drug treatments and surgery, and controlled by pharmaceutical companies, HMOs and such professional organizations as the AMA. In the 19th century, Canada did not have a universal health care system. Doctors were for those who could afford to pay for them not for those without resources. The rise in the medical profession followed the illegalization of midwives and other forms
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