WS100-OC Final Exam Review.docx

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Women & Gender Studies
Lorraine Vander Hoef

WS100 Final Exam Review Definition Questions Environmental racism (288): people of colour in the US are disproportionately exposed to toxic environments due to the dumping of chemical and other waste on Native American lands and in urban areas where more people of colour live Reproductive choice (290-309): being able to have safe and affordable birthing and parenting options; reliable, safe, and affordable birth control technologies; freedom from forced sterilization; and the availability of abortion Eugenics (290): the racist and classist idea that certain groups have more right to reproduce than others Norplant (297, 344): a contraceptive device that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm and releases a small amount of the progestin hormone through the inserted capsules for up to 5 years Pro-life advocate (301): believe that human personhood begins at conception and a fertilized ovum or fetus has the right to full moral and legal rights of personhood; believe that the sanctity of human life outweighs the rights of mothers; some see abortion as murder and doctors as accomplices Roe v. Wade (301-04): the US court trial that give women the right to abort with a few restrictions Fistula (329): “the lifelong consequence of obstructed labour can include fistulae (rectovaginal and vesicovaginal), with urinary or fecal incontinence or both as well as structural damage to reproductive organs; often leads to ostracism and social isolation for young women Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (341, 563): denies additional benefits to women who have more children while receiving public assistance Nuclear family (356): a married couple living together with their children Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) (358, 380): passed in 1996; restricted the legality of unions beyond the male/husband and female/wife relationships; restricts marriage benefits and recognition to only heterosexual couples in the US Family values (359-60): illustrate how supporters of the status quo have made the term synonymous with traditional definitions of the family and its role in society (ex. women defined in domestic roles) Motherhood (369-71): notions on innate, biologically programmed behaviour and expectations of unconditional love and nurturance; primary responsibility for the nurturing of children; the US cultural construction of “motherhood” that is class and race based and sees mothers as devoted to and sacrificing for their children Economic globalization (391): processes that integrate economies towards a global marketplace of a single world market as illustrated by the rapid growth of transnational corporations and complex networks of production and consumption Hostile work environment (399-401): no explicit demand for an exchange of sexual acts for work- related conditions but being subjected to a pattern of harassment as part of the work environment; must be determined whether or not the conduct unreasonably interfered with an individual’s work performance and judged on criteria including whether the alleged harasser was a co-worker or supervisor, whether the contact was verbal, physical, or both, whether the victim was singled out, etc. Dual labour market (400-402): there is a primary market, with relatively high wages and employee benefits and protections for workers, and a secondary market, where workers (disproportionately women and people of colour) receive lower wages, fewer benefits, and less opportunity for advancement Horizontal segregation (406; 412-13): segregation of women and men across different kinds of jobs; segregating women into “feminine” jobs Vertical segregation (409; 413): segregation within jobs (ex. women pediatrics and public health workers vs. men as surgeons and orthopedics) Glass escalator (410): practices whereby men who go into traditionally female-dominated professions like teaching, nursing, and social work, are disproportionately advanced into management and admin positions where they receive more prestige, pay, and power than women Page 1 of 10 Comparable worth (413): aka pay equity; is one means to pay women and men in different occupations comparably; works to compare different jobs on experience, skill, training, job conditions, and assigns relative points on these indices in order to determine their worth Male gaze (458-60): movies are made through and for the male gaze and fulfill a desire for men to look at women as objects (extreme example of pornography) Zines (468, 498-501): quick, cheap, cut-and-paste publications in print and digital form; range in quality and provide a forum for alternative views on different subjects, especially pop culture; provide an opportunity for young feminists to resist ideas in mainstream publications that sustain women’s subordination; allow girls and women to critique and embrace girlishness and femininity Sexting (493-96): creating, sharing, and forwarding sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images by minor teens Gendered violence (503-09): harm evolved from the imbalance in power between men and women Stalking (505-09): the act of a person who, on more than one occasion, follows, pursues or harasses another person, and, by actively engaging in a pattern of conduct, causes victims to believe the stalker will cause physical harm or mental distress to them Hip-hop culture (506; 534-42): Sexual assault (511): any sexual contact without consent and/or that involves the use of force Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (522, 549): the most extensive international instrument dealing with the rights of women, 1979 Pornography (524): the sexualisation and objectification of women’s bodies and parts of bodies for entertainment value Equal thghts Amendment (ERA)(550-52): introduced into Congress in 1923 to count inadequacies of the 14 Amendment concerning women and citizenship; affirms that men and women hold equally all of the rights guaranteed by the US Constitution; provides remedy for gender discrimination for both genders and, at the constitutional level, provide equal legal status to women for the first time Femme couverte (557): “covered women”; husband and wife were one person under law, and she was his sexual property; married women could not seek employment without the husband’s consent, keep their own wages or property, sue, exercise control over their children or reproductive lives Alimony (560): the payment that women have traditionally received as compensation for their unpaid roles as wives and mothers; reduced or eliminated through legislation since 1970 Tokenism (561): hiring women and minorities for positions that are terminal in terms of advancement; does not satisfy the affirmative action goals Radical approach to feminist activism (644-45): attempt to transform the system rather than to adapt the existing system Transformational politics (651-2): living with communal values that teach how to honour the needs of the individual as well as the group Global feminism (670-72): the spread of feminism beyond America Racism: the belief in the inherent superiority of one race over all other and thereby the right to dominance; made much more complicated by colonialism which means an incoming foreign power asserting its values and way of life on others who are deemed different or in need of “civilizing” Jane Doe: raped by serial rapist in Toronto, police didn’t inform citizens about the serial rapist and because of her case, police are now obligated to warn neighbourhoods of suspected rapists Marie Claire Blais: Quebec writer; examined the darkness of the negative and controlling restrictions on the lives of women Compulsory heterosexuality: a social construct that leads people to believe that heterosexuality is the sole “natural” choice and is inevitable Sexology: explores sex and gender; classified sexual behaviours and relationships on the basis of biological explanations; believed homosexuality was the outcome of inferior genes as opposed to the result of freely chosen deviant behaviour; made lesbians feel isolated Page 2 of 10 Boston marriage: women who committed themselves to both a career and relationship with another woman Medicalization: the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and problems, and thus come under the authority of doctors to study, diagnose, prevent, or treat things. Dr. Henry Morgentaler: committed to eliminating all practises that he believes spoil the rights of people; fighting to maintain women’s right to abortion; medical specialist and advocate for women’s rights; opened an abortion clinic in Quebec in the 1970s and later in Toronto; won the ruling in Supreme Court on January 28, 1988 that decriminalized abortion Estrogen: the pill adjusts levels of estrogen, went into mass production; linked deaths to the high dosages of estrogen forcing researchers, doctors, politicians, and pharmaceutical companies to address what they had been dismissing Bill C-49: Canada’s “No Means No” law; first bill passed by parliament that engaged in serious consultation with women who had been raped, women who counsel rape victims, lawyers, and police; states that when a woman says no to sex and the male proceeds – a sexual assault has occurred; meant to protect women but men can claim misunderstanding Praxis: political action taken to eliminate oppressive economic, social, and cultural structures; emerges from an analysis of issues and their connection to exploitative systems and structures Privilege: the more privilege someone holds in society, the greater the likelihood that one will be taken seriously as a speaker and writer Short Answer Questions Chapter Six/Lesson Ten: 1. How do principles of equity, androcentrism, medicalization, stereotyping, and levels of corporate responsibility determine justice through women’s access to healthcare? (pg. 285- 287)  Medicalization involves certain behaviours or conditions are given medical meaning, as either being healthy and normal or unhealthy and ill; functions to get rid of problematic experiences seen as deviant (homosexuality) so that all activities or experiences adhere to what is assumed as the social norm  Until recently, women were not included in clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of drugs and other medical devices because their hormones and other factors unique to women were believed to skew results  More money has been spent on diseases that are more likely to afflict men  Androcentrism supports men having more power and influence in the health care system  Medicalization influences women in two ways – since they have more episodic changes as a result of childbearing, they are more at risk for medical personnel interpreting these natural processes as problematic and it supports business and medical technologies  Stereotyping encompasses how notions about gender, race and ethnicity, and other identities inform everyday understanding of health care occupations and influence how medical practitioners treat their patients  Consider emotional factors when diagnosing women’s problems and prescribe more mood- altering medication for women than men  Corporate Responsibility relates to how national and global corporations with strong profit motives affect our lives in terms of environmental degradation and toxic exposure, food additives, and problematic medical practices Page 3 of 10 2. Be able to discuss how definitions of sex and gender, globalization and economic development and sociocultural factors affect girls’ health and lifespan (Woods, pg. 326-331).  Critical intersections of sex, gender, race, ethnicity, class, and age shape the environments that influence girls’ chances for health  Differential effects of proposed and/or existing policies, programs, and legislation on women and men  Globalization: interactive co-evolution of technological, economic, institutional, social, and environmental trends  Some of the most important health effects at stake as proximal determinants of health are diet, inactivity, smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drugs  Equally important for the girl-child’s development are changes in lifestyle that affect gender- related socialization and roles  Gender values of culture where males are valued more highly than females  Infanticide – gender preference for males in some countries  Poverty may contribute to the enactment of gender preference both before and after birth  Diseases and morbidity, obstetric morbidity and mortality  Genital cutting and mutilation and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa and East Africa 3. Be able to discuss the intersecting oppressions experienced by women of colour in their pursuit of reproductive justice and their critique of reproductive “choice” (Silliman et al., pg. 340-347)  “Choice” referring to the choice to determine whether or not to have children, the choice to terminate a pregnancy, and the ability to make informed choices about contraceptive and reproductive technologies  Women of colour do not have a “choice,” they are restricted in what they can choose o Forced to accept sterilization in exchange for continued relief benefits or have been sterilized without their knowledge or consent  Population efforts have been intended to prevent women of colour from giving birth  Poverty – rights of low-income and women of colour to have children were undermined  Racism – racist population control; in the 1940s, the federal government enforced a policy that resulted in the sterilization of over 1/3 of all women of childbearing age in Puerto Rico  Committee on Women, Population, and the Environment (CWPE) initiated a campaign in the 1990s, Children Requiring a Caring Kommunity (CRACK) that sterilized women addicted to drugs, and other “undesirable” women – women of colour  Asian women portrayed as concubines, prostitutes, or model minorities  Native American women seen as willing squaws, alcoholics, or “brown lumps of drudge”  Reservation Indians are said to “wallow in welfare, food stamps, free housing and medical care, affirmative action programs, and huge federal cash payments”  Latinas get stereotyped as oversexed “hot tamales” or illegal immigrants  Through activism, women of colour assert the value and dignity of their lives, their children’s lives, and their roles as mothers – reproductive rights and autonomy 4. Be able to explain how the ideology of femininity in the nineteenth century shaped conceptions of women’s health and psychiatric illness.  Medicalization: the process by which a medical model was used to define and justify social practices around all biological events from birth to death Page 4 of 10 th  In the 19 century, white middle and upper class pregnant women were told by physicians to stay at home and rest to gain energy to grow the foetus  Health practitioners were outlawed and women found themselves silenced in a restrictive relationship with doctors who dismissed women’s knowledge of their own bodies  Gynaecologists, alienists (modern day psychiatrists), and neurologists fought for the authority to interpret women’s bodies  The gynaecologist won, contending all of women’s problems can be traced to their reproductive organs  All three specialists believed that women had a pre-condition to insanity  Blamed white middle and upper class women’s hysteria on restrictive life choices and too much hard work for the hysteria of poor and working women 5. How does the history of the birth control pill demonstrate the “authority of men to decide women’s reproductive lives”?  Women needed both husbands and doctors to sign consent forms to allow her to have her tubs tied; men continued to make decisions about the number of children and the frequency of sex Chapter Seven/Lesson Seven: 1. Explain how the term “family values” has been used by political conservatives to exclude some definitions of family. What social injustices are often hidden by this dominant ideology? (pg. 359)  Synonymous with traditional definitions of the family and its role in society  Women defined in terms of their domestic and repro
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