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WS100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stereotype, Sexting, Obstructed Labour

Women & Gender Studies
Course Code
Lorraine Vander Hoef
Study Guide

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WS100 Final Exam Review
Definition Questions
Environmental racism (288): people of colour in the US are disproportionately exposed to toxic
environments due to the dumping of chemical and other waste on Native American lands and in urban
areas where more people of colour live
Reproductive choice (290-309): being able to have safe and affordable birthing and parenting options;
reliable, safe, and affordable birth control technologies; freedom from forced sterilization; and the
availability of abortion
Eugenics (290): the racist and classist idea that certain groups have more right to reproduce than others
Norplant (297, 344): a contraceptive device that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm and
releases a small amount of the progestin hormone through the inserted capsules for up to 5 years
Pro-life advocate (301): believe that human personhood begins at conception and a fertilized ovum or
fetus has the right to full moral and legal rights of personhood; believe that the sanctity of human life
outweighs the rights of mothers; some see abortion as murder and doctors as accomplices
Roe v. Wade (301-04): the US court trial that give women the right to abort with a few restrictions
Fistula (329): the lifelong consequence of obstructed labour can include fistulae (rectovaginal and
vesicovaginal), with urinary or fecal incontinence or both as well as structural damage to reproductive
organs; often leads to ostracism and social isolation for young women
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (341, 563): denies additional
benefits to women who have more children while receiving public assistance
Nuclear family (356): a married couple living together with their children
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) (358, 380): passed in 1996; restricted the legality of unions beyond
the male/husband and female/wife relationships; restricts marriage benefits and recognition to only
heterosexual couples in the US
Family values (359-60): illustrate how supporters of the status quo have made the term synonymous with
traditional definitions of the family and its role in society (ex. women defined in domestic roles)
Motherhood (369-71): notions on innate, biologically programmed behaviour and expectations of
unconditional love and nurturance; primary responsibility for the nurturing of children; the US cultural
construction of “motherhood” that is class and race based and sees mothers as devoted to and sacrificing
for their children
Economic globalization (391): processes that integrate economies towards a global marketplace of a
single world market as illustrated by the rapid growth of transnational corporations and complex networks
of production and consumption
Hostile work environment (399-401): no explicit demand for an exchange of sexual acts for work-
related conditions but being subjected to a pattern of harassment as part of the work environment; must be
determined whether or not the conduct unreasonably interfered with an individual’s work performance
and judged on criteria including whether the alleged harasser was a co-worker or supervisor, whether the
contact was verbal, physical, or both, whether the victim was singled out, etc.
Dual labour market (400-402): there is a primary market, with relatively high wages and employee
benefits and protections for workers, and a secondary market, where workers (disproportionately women
and people of colour) receive lower wages, fewer benefits, and less opportunity for advancement
Horizontal segregation (406; 412-13): segregation of women and men across different kinds of jobs;
segregating women into “feminine” jobs
Vertical segregation (409; 413): segregation within jobs (ex. women pediatrics and public health
workers vs. men as surgeons and orthopedics)
Glass escalator (410): practices whereby men who go into traditionally female-dominated professions
like teaching, nursing, and social work, are disproportionately advanced into management and admin
positions where they receive more prestige, pay, and power than women

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Comparable worth (413): aka pay equity; is one means to pay women and men in different occupations
comparably; works to compare different jobs on experience, skill, training, job conditions, and assigns
relative points on these indices in order to determine their worth
Male gaze (458-60): movies are made through and for the male gaze and fulfill a desire for men to look
at women as objects (extreme example of pornography)
Zines (468, 498-501): quick, cheap, cut-and-paste publications in print and digital form; range in quality
and provide a forum for alternative views on different subjects, especially pop culture; provide an
opportunity for young feminists to resist ideas in mainstream publications that sustain women’s
subordination; allow girls and women to critique and embrace girlishness and femininity
Sexting (493-96): creating, sharing, and forwarding sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images by
minor teens
Gendered violence (503-09): harm evolved from the imbalance in power between men and women
Stalking (505-09): the act of a person who, on more than one occasion, follows, pursues or harasses
another person, and, by actively engaging in a pattern of conduct, causes victims to believe the stalker
will cause physical harm or mental distress to them
Hip-hop culture (506; 534-42):
Sexual assault (511): any sexual contact without consent and/or that involves the use of force
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
(CEDAW) (522, 549): the most extensive international instrument dealing with the rights of women,
Pornography (524): the sexualisation and objectification of women’s bodies and parts of bodies for
entertainment value
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)(550-52): introduced into Congress in 1923 to count inadequacies of
the 14th Amendment concerning women and citizenship; affirms that men and women hold equally all of
the rights guaranteed by the US Constitution; provides remedy for gender discrimination for both genders
and, at the constitutional level, provide equal legal status to women for the first time
Femme couverte (557): “covered women”; husband and wife were one person under law, and she was his
sexual property; married women could not seek employment without the husband’s consent, keep their
own wages or property, sue, exercise control over their children or reproductive lives
Alimony (560): the payment that women have traditionally received as compensation for their unpaid
roles as wives and mothers; reduced or eliminated through legislation since 1970
Tokenism (561): hiring women and minorities for positions that are terminal in terms of advancement;
does not satisfy the affirmative action goals
Radical approach to feminist activism (644-45): attempt to transform the system rather than to adapt
the existing system
Transformational politics (651-2): living with communal values that teach how to honour the needs of
the individual as well as the group
Global feminism (670-72): the spread of feminism beyond America
Racism: the belief in the inherent superiority of one race over all other and thereby the right to
dominance; made much more complicated by colonialism which means an incoming foreign power
asserting its values and way of life on others who are deemed different or in need of “civilizing”
Jane Doe: raped by serial rapist in Toronto, police didn’t inform citizens about the serial rapist and
because of her case, police are now obligated to warn neighbourhoods of suspected rapists
Marie Claire Blais: Quebec writer; examined the darkness of the negative and controlling restrictions on
the lives of women
Compulsory heterosexuality: a social construct that leads people to believe that heterosexuality is the
sole “natural” choice and is inevitable
Sexology: explores sex and gender; classified sexual behaviours and relationships on the basis of
biological explanations; believed homosexuality was the outcome of inferior genes as opposed to the
result of freely chosen deviant behaviour; made lesbians feel isolated

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Boston marriage: women who committed themselves to both a career and relationship with another
Medicalization: the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as
medical conditions and problems, and thus come under the authority of doctors to study, diagnose,
prevent, or treat things.
Dr. Henry Morgentaler: committed to eliminating all practises that he believes spoil the rights of
people; fighting to maintain women’s right to abortion; medical specialist and advocate for women’s
rights; opened an abortion clinic in Quebec in the 1970s and later in Toronto; won the ruling in Supreme
Court on January 28, 1988 that decriminalized abortion
Estrogen: the pill adjusts levels of estrogen, went into mass production; linked deaths to the high dosages
of estrogen forcing researchers, doctors, politicians, and pharmaceutical companies to address what they
had been dismissing
Bill C-49: Canada’s “No Means No” law; first bill passed by parliament that engaged in serious
consultation with women who had been raped, women who counsel rape victims, lawyers, and police;
states that when a woman says no to sex and the male proceeds a sexual assault has occurred; meant to
protect women but men can claim misunderstanding
Praxis: political action taken to eliminate oppressive economic, social, and cultural structures; emerges
from an analysis of issues and their connection to exploitative systems and structures
Privilege: the more privilege someone holds in society, the greater the likelihood that one will be taken
seriously as a speaker and writer
Short Answer Questions
Chapter Six/Lesson Ten:
1. How do principles of equity, androcentrism, medicalization, stereotyping, and levels of
corporate responsibility determine justice through women’s access to healthcare? (pg. 285-
Medicalization involves certain behaviours or conditions are given medical meaning, as either
being healthy and normal or unhealthy and ill; functions to get rid of problematic experiences
seen as deviant (homosexuality) so that all activities or experiences adhere to what is assumed as
the social norm
Until recently, women were not included in clinical trials to determine the safety and
effectiveness of drugs and other medical devices because their hormones and other factors unique
to women were believed to skew results
More money has been spent on diseases that are more likely to afflict men
Androcentrism supports men having more power and influence in the health care system
Medicalization influences women in two ways since they have more episodic changes as a
result of childbearing, they are more at risk for medical personnel interpreting these natural
processes as problematic and it supports business and medical technologies
Stereotyping encompasses how notions about gender, race and ethnicity, and other identities
inform everyday understanding of health care occupations and influence how medical
practitioners treat their patients
Consider emotional factors when diagnosing women’s problems and prescribe more mood-
altering medication for women than men
Corporate Responsibility relates to how national and global corporations with strong profit
motives affect our lives in terms of environmental degradation and toxic exposure, food additives,
and problematic medical practices
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