1. Artificial Intelligence: What it is (expert systems and systems designed to copy or
emulate the human cognitive process;
Whether a sentient machine should be acknowledged as a new species;
Coursekit article: Reason by Asimov.
-It is enough to understand that, today, when we speak of artificial intelligence, we mean
an intelligence that is less than real, human intelligence: one which by means of a
computer program emulates, copies, or imitates human intelligence, but implicitly one
which is not equitable with human intelligence itself.
-To put it another way, Artificial Intelligence means exactly what it suggests: it is not
real; it has not evolved over millions of years; and it is meant to copy, emulate or imitate
-When we talk aboutArtificial intelligence today we talk about computers that have
programs that allow machines to appear like they are thinking, even though it is not.
- a machine is created that no longer emulates, copies or imitates human intelligence, but
achieves and displays all of the qualities of human intelligence, man will have created a
Whether a sentient machine should be acknowledged as a new species?
1) Must want to survive
2) Must be able to sustain itself (feed itself, find itself an environment to live in)
3) Reproduce itself or make others of its kind
4) Increase its chances of survival
Coursekit article: Reason by Asimov.
2. Benefits of New technology: The Internet; Centralized and Decentralized
Systems/Networks; Benefits defined and explained, Categories of Benefits of New
Technology; Understanding Global Benefits, Logical Malleability:
Examples of some benefits of New Technology including medical applications.
the internet is the largest decentralized computer network, millions of computers are
internet: a network of networks of computers which link many small computer networks
The internet was originally designed for use of the military during world war II, which was
a way of ensuring that secret information would always reach its destination
There are two types of computer network or systems: centralized computer network/system
and decentralized computer network/system
Centralized computer system:
when there is one main computer or a group of main computers which all computers are
linked for the system to work properly. Example: America Online and CompuServe (They use it to email, track the stock market….) –large and small corporations use centralized
computers within their corporations
Benefits: more secure from invasion by hackers or others, viruses or worms
better control of company, including monitoring of employees and work
Disadvantages: if the main computer is destroyed or shut down, the network will not
Decentralized computer system network:
when there isn’t one main computer to which all computers are linked, in fact there are
computers who are linked to other and then computers so on.
A decentralized computer network can also be composed of smaller networks, with each
network having a central computer called a "server". Information is passed from one
computer to another computer by passing through intervening servers.
Advantages: since all of the computers are not connected to one main computer, if a
computer shuts down, then the information will still reach the destination because it will
more prone to attack of hackers, invasion by viruses, and does not allow for better
control of internal operations
raises questions that relate to privacy, security, ethics and more
Example: during the world war II if the enemy were to destroy or bomb a specific
computer, the information will still go through
There are three categories of benefit: INDIVIDUAL, SOCIETAL, AND GLOBAL
Individual benefit: a benefit that is directed for a person
Example: the use of a CATscan or MRI for diagnostic purposes will only help the patient,
the doctor because he gets paid for helping the patient, the manufacturer from whom the
doctor or hospital buys the machine and etc.
Societal benefit: benefits a community in one form or another –benefits that accrue to a
defined geographical and economic area
Global Benefit: benefits that accrue to each and every person on the face of the earth
the benefit must accrue to all of the people of the world, not just certain tribes
a promise of new technology is that through internet we can get access to lots of
information and communicate globally but this statement is not true because not everyone
has access to new technology – the poor people who do not have access to new
technology may not have any idea, new technology even exists.
In determining whether a benefit is global, the following guidelines apply:
1)benefit must be available and used by everyone
2)benefit must affect everyone
3) benefit must be affordable for everyone
4) quantity of benefit, and the potential benefit it has The key element here is “Choice” or “the ability to choose whether to adopt or accept
the benefit”. So long as choice is available in the situation described, the benefit remains
a Global Benefit
Logical Malleability: that the magic of computers lies in the fact that they will do
whatever we want them to do, so long as we find a way to get them to do it. Another way
of saying this is that the magic and wonderment of the computer lies in the fact that it will
do whatever we program it to do.
Benefits of New Technology:
1. Smart Vehicles - New technology is being used to increase automobile
performance and safety in the areas of handling, fuel efficiency, riding
comfort, informational aids and entertainment.
2. Scientific Applications: Computational speed and the ability to create
pictures generated by input of information have led to the employment of
new technology is in Biology, Astronomy, Physics, and Mathematics.
3. Video Games: (somewhat self-explanatory)
4. Social Sciences: "Statistical analysis of large data sets, the creation and
distribution of linguistic and literary corpi, the modelling of political,
historical, economic and social phenomena, and the collection of
historical, archaeological, and fine arts image databases are all part of the
application of computers in the social sciences."
5. The Internet - The use of a decentralized computing system or a network
of networks of computers which links many small computer networks together,
each of which agrees to use the same system of rules or protocol, has led to
access to information, new forms of communication and the creation of a new
form of economics. This "information superhighway" has already had and will
continue to have a major impact on is users and thus society itself.
1) CAT SCAN – use x-rays to produce images of the human body to analyze
2) MRI MACHINE- create images that allows internal observations such as
movement of blood
3) PET SCANNERS -it is able to reveal the functioning of organs and tissues, not
just their outline compared to a CAT scan
3. New Technology and Education: What a Teacher is: What teaching is:Discussion
of different scenarios re using new technology in education, including the conclusions and the debate about use of the computer in education; Computer Literacy; a fourth basic
skill; Coursekit article: How computers Make kids Stupid
The more controversial uses of new technology including those who are deriving
immediate benefits; Effects of New Technology on Children; The Eventual Outcome of
a)Human teacher as instructor, computer as an aid
teachers can not touch kids but kids need some form of nurturing
b) Computer as in instructor, human as an aid
There may be some sort of benefit of having computer as an instructor
If computers are put to use for a generation and is useful that same generation is going to
want that for future generation
c) Computer as an instructor, no human present, monitoring from a
distance and intervention when necessary
The computer wont be respected because he has no form of authority, so it can partly
Due to common sense logic, we will adopt that
Computers and Education:
3 fundamental areas of learning:
Have computers become the 4 fundamental learning area?
there is an affect because on our reading, writing and math
Computers do allow little kids you to learn from them
New schools now say computer literacy is the 4 basic skill, its taking the 3 strategies
and making it one
"teacher" is defined as: a person trained to teach, especially one who teaches in a school
Teach, instruct = give or convey knowledge or information to someone
Teach emphasizes causing or enabling a person to learn something by giving
information, explanation, and training, by showing how as well as what to learn and by
guiding the learner's studies.
sole purpose. It would also be appr