Study Guides (238,072)
Canada (114,906)
York University (9,812)
ADMS 1000 (259)


8 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 1000
Indira Somwaru

1. Artificial Intelligence: What it is (expert systems and systems designed to copy or emulate the human cognitive process; Whether a sentient machine should be acknowledged as a new species; Coursekit article: Reason by Asimov. Artificial Intelligence -It is enough to understand that, today, when we speak of artificial intelligence, we mean an intelligence that is less than real, human intelligence: one which by means of a computer program emulates, copies, or imitates human intelligence, but implicitly one which is not equitable with human intelligence itself. -To put it another way, Artificial Intelligence means exactly what it suggests: it is not real; it has not evolved over millions of years; and it is meant to copy, emulate or imitate human intelligence -When we talk aboutArtificial intelligence today we talk about computers that have programs that allow machines to appear like they are thinking, even though it is not. - a machine is created that no longer emulates, copies or imitates human intelligence, but achieves and displays all of the qualities of human intelligence, man will have created a sentient machine Whether a sentient machine should be acknowledged as a new species? 1) Must want to survive 2) Must be able to sustain itself (feed itself, find itself an environment to live in) 3) Reproduce itself or make others of its kind 4) Increase its chances of survival Coursekit article: Reason by Asimov. 2. Benefits of New technology: The Internet; Centralized and Decentralized Systems/Networks; Benefits defined and explained, Categories of Benefits of New Technology; Understanding Global Benefits, Logical Malleability: Examples of some benefits of New Technology including medical applications. THE INTERNET ­the internet is the largest decentralized computer network, millions of computers are  linked together ­internet: a network of networks of computers which link many small computer networks  together. ­The internet was originally designed for use of the military during world war II, which  was  a way of ensuring that secret information would always reach its destination ­There are two types of computer network or systems: centralized computer network/system  and decentralized computer network/system Centralized computer system:  ­when there is one main computer or a group of main computers which all computers are  linked for the system to work properly. Example: America Online and CompuServe  (They  use it to email, track the stock market….) –large and small corporations use centralized  computers within their corporations ­Benefits: ­more secure from invasion by hackers or others, viruses or worms ­better control of company, including monitoring of employees and work ­Disadvantages: ­ if the main computer is destroyed or shut down, the network will not  function Decentralized computer system network: ­when there isn’t one main computer to which all computers are linked, in fact there are  computers who are linked to other and then computers so on. ­A decentralized computer network can also be composed of smaller networks, with each  network having a central computer called a "server".  Information is passed from one  computer to another computer by passing through intervening servers.   Advantages: ­since all of the computers are not connected to one main computer, if a  computer shuts down, then the information will still reach the destination because it will  reroute itself. Disadvantages: ­more prone to attack of hackers, invasion by viruses, and does not allow for better  control of internal operations ­raises questions that relate to privacy, security, ethics and more Example: during the world war II if the enemy were to destroy or bomb a specific  computer, the information will still go through There are three categories of benefit: INDIVIDUAL, SOCIETAL, AND GLOBAL  Individual benefit: a benefit that is directed for a person Example: the use of a CATscan or MRI for diagnostic purposes will only help the patient,  the doctor because he gets paid for helping the patient, the manufacturer from whom the  doctor or hospital buys the machine and etc.      Societal benefit: ­benefits a community in one form or another –benefits that accrue to a  defined geographical and economic area Global Benefit: ­benefits that accrue to each and every person on the face of the earth ­the benefit must accrue to all of the people of the world, not just certain tribes ­a promise of new technology is that through internet we can get access to lots of  information and communicate globally but this statement is not true because not everyone  has access to new technology – the poor people who do not have access to new  technology may not have any idea, new technology even exists. In determining whether a benefit is global, the following guidelines apply: 1)benefit must be available and used by everyone 2)benefit must affect  everyone 3) benefit must be affordable for everyone 4) quantity of benefit, and the potential benefit it has ­The key element here is “Choice” or “the ability to choose whether to adopt or accept  the benefit”.  So long as choice is available in the situation described, the benefit remains  a Global Benefit Logical Malleability: that the magic of computers lies in the fact that they will do  whatever we want them to do, so long as we find a way to get them to do it.  Another way  of saying this is that the magic and wonderment of the computer lies in the fact that it will  do whatever we program it to do. Benefits of New Technology: 1. Smart Vehicles - New technology is being used to increase automobile performance and safety in the areas of handling, fuel efficiency, riding comfort, informational aids and entertainment. 2. Scientific Applications: Computational speed and the ability to create pictures generated by input of information have led to the employment of new technology is in Biology, Astronomy, Physics, and Mathematics. 3. Video Games: (somewhat self-explanatory) 4. Social Sciences: "Statistical analysis of large data sets, the creation and distribution of linguistic and literary corpi, the modelling of political, historical, economic and social phenomena, and the collection of historical, archaeological, and fine arts image databases are all part of the application of computers in the social sciences." 5. The Internet - The use of a decentralized computing system or a network of networks of computers which links many small computer networks together, each of which agrees to use the same system of rules or protocol, has led to access to information, new forms of communication and the creation of a new form of economics. This "information superhighway" has already had and will continue to have a major impact on is users and thus society itself. Medical Applications: 1) CAT SCAN – use x-rays to produce images of the human body to analyze 2) MRI MACHINE- create images that allows internal observations such as movement of blood 3) PET SCANNERS -it is able to reveal the functioning of organs and tissues, not just their outline compared to a CAT scan 3. New Technology and Education: What a Teacher is: What teaching is:Discussion of different scenarios re using new technology in education, including the conclusions and the debate about use of the computer in education; Computer Literacy; a fourth basic skill; Coursekit article: How computers Make kids Stupid The more controversial uses of new technology including those who are deriving immediate benefits; Effects of New Technology on Children; The Eventual Outcome of the Debate. a)Human teacher as instructor, computer as an aid ­teachers can not touch kids but kids need some form of nurturing  b) Computer as in instructor, human as an aid ­There may be some sort of benefit of having computer as an instructor  ­If computers are put to use for a generation and is useful that same generation is going to  want that for future generation  c) Computer as an instructor, no human present, monitoring from a   distance and intervention when necessary ­The computer wont be respected because he has no form of authority, so it can partly  work out. ­Due to common sense logic, we will adopt that Computers and Education: 3 fundamental areas of learning: ­Writing  ­Reading ­Math th ­Have computers become the 4  fundamental learning area? ­there is an affect because on our reading, writing and math ­Computers do allow little kids you to learn from them ­New schools now say computer literacy is the 4  basic skill, its taking the 3 strategies  and making it one "teacher" is defined as: a person trained to teach, especially one who teaches in a school  or college. Teach, instruct = give or convey knowledge or information to someone Teach emphasizes causing or enabling a person to learn something by giving  information, explanation, and training, by showing how as well as what to learn and by  guiding the learner's studies. ­sole purpose.  It would also be appr
More Less

Related notes for ADMS 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.