Chapter Q & A
What are the 7 competitive challenges?
What implications do the anticipated changes in demographics have for the
management of human resources?
Labour force is expected to age
Creating a larger number of older workers and a shrinking pool of younger
Implications for aging workers include:
o Entry levels competition
o Increased cost of compensation, health care, retirement benefits
o Related motivation concerns
o Training techniques that help senior workers learn new behaviors
Diversity in the workforce will continue
Higher proportion of women and minorities
HRM will be required to accommodate the needs of these workers through
o Flexible schedules, parental leave, daycare for dual career families
o Training for supervisors
Educational levels expected to rise
Functional and Technological illiteracy will be a problem which will result in
Describe how the human resources planning is integrated with strategic planning?
Through strategic planning, organization create objectives and plans to
HRP evaluates what is or is likely to be possible, given
o The number of people
o Training needs
o People related issues
HR strategies are developed through strategic goals that evolve from the
strategy formulation process
During the Strategy implementation phase, HRP must create resource
allocation decisions, implement policy, practices, training that supports
strategic planning process Describe 3 key elements of the HRP Model?
Forecasting Demand: Estimating the amount or type of employees to hire
to meet organizational objectives. (Might use mathematical approach)
Forecasting Supply: If there is the right amount or type of employees to
Balancing supply/demand considerations:
o Demand: based on forecast of trends in business activities
o Supply: Where and how to find the right applicants for job
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using attrition as a downsizing
Ability to control and predict expenses that go beyond salaries of
When an organization does not replace departing employee it can result
More work for current employees because of the departing ones
May not match the skills needed
No control on who leaves, valuable employees leaving while less needed
Attrition can take a long time while layoffs does not
Identify and describe three strategies managers use to cope with labour shortage?
Overtime: used during peak periods
Part-timers: using part-timers to increase flexibility, cover absence of full-
Temporary workers: used for vacation fill-ins, cover sick leave, or to work
during peak period Chapter 3:
What are some of the disadvantages in employment faced by the four designated
groups in Canada?
Women: tend to be focused in jobs that are lower status and pay
Aboriginal peoples: focused in low-paying, unstable employment
People with disabilities:
o Have a higher unemployment rate than the national unemployment
o Face barriers in physical demands unrelated to the job
o Poor access to technical/human support systems that would make
productive employment possible
o Studies show Latin Americans and Southeast Asians experience lower
than average income
o Higher rates of unemployment
o Reduced access to interviews having the same qualifications.
o Barriers include language requirments
What are the steps involved in filing and investigating human rights complaints?
o Anyone has the right to file a complaint
o Write a report in on what occurred
o CHRC reviews the report
o If accepted and investigation occurs
o Investigator submits report
o If substantiated, settlement might be arranged, if not the then the
human rights tribunal may continue the investigation
o If the practices did take place, accused might have to pay fine, if they
do not, a fine or jail time can take place.
o Similar to federal
o Instead, members of commission file a report to the minister in charge
of human rights
What can employers do to deter sexual harassment?
Employers must have a sexual harassment policy
Policy must be clear stating that sexual harassment will not be tolerated
Training must take place in order for the employees to deter sexual
Organization must have a formal complaint procedure in place
All charges must be investigated immediately, follow up should take place What are the benefits of employment equity?
Larger applicant pool
Avoiding costly human rights complaints
Enhanced ability to recruit and retain
Enhanced employee morale
Improved corporate image
What are the steps in implementing EE?
Step 1: Senior Management Commitment and Assignment of Accountable
Step 2: Data Collection and Analysis
Step 3: Employment Systems review
Step 4: Establishment of a Workplan
Step 5: Implementation
Step 6: Evaluation, Monitoring and Revision
What is the role of the job analysis in HRM, and how does it relate to other HRM
Involves a systematic process of obtaining information about jobs
Useful for recruitment, selection, training, development, performance review,
compensation, and labour relations
Permits HR managers to identify job requirements/specifications and design
fitting selection programs
Info provided by job analysis identifies inconsistencies between knowledge,
skills and abilities that are required
Reveals requirements of a job resulting in performance evaluations
Allow organizations to identify those jobs subject to union jurisdiction
What factors should be considered is designing a job?
Job design in concerned with structuring jobs to improve efficiency and
employee job satisfaction
Considerations should include:
o Goals the job was created to achieve
o Industrial engineering considerations, ways to make job technologically
o Ergonomic concerns, workers physical/mental capabilities
o Behavioral concerns that influence an employees job satisfaction Discuss the job characteristics that motivate employees.
3 physiological states: MRK
o Meaningfulness of work
o Responsibility for work outcomes
o Knowledge of results
These improve performance, motivation, satisfaction and reduce absence and
This is done through : STTAF
o Skill variety: opportunity to do a variety of job activates using skills
o Task Identity: involves doing a complete piece of work
o Task significance: Impact the job has on other people
o Autonomy: Freedom to schedule ones work activities and decide work
o Feedback: information given to the jobholder based on their
What are the advantages and disadvantages of flexible working hours?
Reduces being late/absent
Gain satisfaction to being able to adjust schedule to life