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ADMS 2600 Final review.docx

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 2600
Gordon Qi Wang

Chapter 1 The World of Human Resources ManagementHuman Resources Management HRMThe process of managing human resources or talent human capital and intellectual assets to achieve an organizations objectives Why Study HRMStaffing the organization designing jobs and teams developing skillful employees identifying approaches for improving their performance and rewarding employee successesall typically labeled HRM issuesare as relevant to line managers as they are to managers in the HR departmentAn organizations success increasingly depends on the knowledge skills and abilities of employees particularly as they help establish a set of core competencies that distinguish an organization from its competitors To work with people effectively we have too Understand human behaviouro Be knowledgeable about various systems and practices availableo Be aware of economic technological social and legal issues With good HR practices organizations could do thing faster better and cheaper with the same number of employeesCompetitive Challenges and HRM 1 Challenge 1 Responding Strategically to Changes in the MarketplaceTo manage change executives and managers including those in HR have to envision the future communicate this vision to employees set clear expectations for performance and develop the capability to execute by reorganizing people and reallocating assets HR managers need an intimate understanding of their firms completive business operations and strategiesSix Sigma is a set of principles and practices whose core ideas include understanding customer needs doing things right the first time and striving for continuous improvement Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost quality service and speedTypes of Change o Reactive changeChange that occurs after external forces have already affected performance o Proactive changeChange initiated to take advantage of targeted opportunities Managing Change through HRFormal change management programs help to keep employees focused on the success of the businessOrganizations Successfully in manage change they build these Key Elements in Changemanagement Planning o Link the change to the business strategy o Show how the change creates quantifiable benefits o Engage key employees customers and their suppliers early when making a change o Make an investment in implanting and sustaining change 2 Challenge 2 Competing Recruiting and Staffing GloballyGlobalizationThe trend toward opening up foreign markets to international trade and investment Impact of globalizationo Anything anywhere anytime markets o Partnerships with foreign firms o Lower trade and tariff barriersNAFTA APEC GATT WTOHR needs to balance a complicated set of issues related to different cultures employment laws and business practices 3 Challenge 3 Setting and Achieving Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability GoalsCorporate Social ResponsibilityThe responsibility of the firm to act in the best interests of the people and communities affected by its activities Companies are learning that being socially responsible both domestically and abroad can not only help them avoid lawsuit but also improve their earningsPeople consider CSR good citizenship more important to their job selection ie they are concerned about how products are produced do employees are treated fairly engvironment pollution etcSustainability is closely relates to CSR Sustainability refers to a firms ability to produce a good or service without damaging the environment or depleting a resource 4 Challenge 4 Advancing HRM with TechnologyTechnology allows organization take advantages of information explosion ecommerce virtual workers etc Advanced technology has tended to reduce the number of jobs that require little skill and to increase the number of jobs that require considerable skill a shift we refer to as moving from touch labour to knowledge workersThis displaces some employees and requires that others be retrainedIn addition information technology has influenced HRM through human resources information systems HRIS that streamline the processing of data and make employee information more readily available to managersKnowledge WorkersWorkers whose responsibilities extend beyond the physical execution of work to include planning decision making and problem solvingHuman Resources Information System HRISA computerized system that provides current and accurate data for the purposes of control and decision makingThe biggest advantage gained from HRIS is allow HR personnel focus more effectively on the firms strategic direction instead of on routine tasks Optional impact cost efficiencies effectiveness etc Relational impact connecting people with each other and with HR dataTransformational impact changing the way HR processes are designed and executedTo choose a HRIS experts says the first step is for HR personnel to evaluate the biggest headaches the experience or the most time consuming tasks and then choose the applications that can have the strongest impact on the firms financial measure5 Challenge 5 Containing Costs While Retaining Top Talent and Maximizing ProductivityIn order to contain costs organizations take many approaches to lowering labour related cost including carefully managing employees benefits downsizing outsourcing offshoring furloughing employees and engaging in employee leasing in an attempt to enhance productivityHRs role is to maintain the relationship between a company and its employees while implementing the changesDownsizingThe planned elimination of jobsWhy do companies cut jobs 1 to save money and 2 to get rid of division even profitable if it is no longer part of strategic directionto strengthen their companies future positions If company downsizes to focus on core operation they may create new jobs as well Hidden Costs of Layoff o Severance and rehiring costs o Accrued vacation and sick day payouts o Pension and benefit payoffs o Potential lawsuits from aggrieved workers o Loss of institutional memory and trust in management o Lack of staffers when the economy rebounds o Survivors who are riskaverse paranoid and politicalBenefits of a NoLayoff Policy o A fiercely loyal more productive workforce o Higher customer satisfaction o Readiness to snap back with the economy o A recruiting edge o Workers who arent afraid to innovate knowing their jobs are safeTo approach downsizing more intelligently companies have made special efforts to reassign and retrain employees for new positions when their jobs are eliminated FurloughingA situation in which an organization asks or requires employees to take time off for either no pay or reduced paySome companies are utilizing creative furlough strategies to avoid downsizing and losing talent to competitorsDisadvantage o Cost are not cut as significantly as they would be with downsizing o Employees are notfurloughed often end up with more work and feel resentful o It can hurt a companys recruiting effortOffshoring global sourcingthe business practice of sending jobs to other countrieso Cost reduction is the main motivator for offshoring o Hidden cost of Offshoring Cost of finding foreign vendors productivity lost during the transition domestic layoff costs language difficulties foreign regulatory challenge and political and economic instability that can threaten operationso To minimize problems line and HR managers have to work together with the firms other functional groups to define and communicate transition plans
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