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Midterm

BIOL 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Oxidative Phosphorylation, Intermembrane Space, Atp Synthase


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1000
Professor
Nicole Nivillac
Study Guide
Midterm

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Cellular Respiration
Define Key Terms:
Electron Carrier: molecules that are capable of accepting ½ electrons from one molecules. They
can donate them to another molecule in the process of electron transport. They can get reduced
and oxidized. As electrons are transferred from one electron carrier to another, their energy
level decrease & energy is released. Electron carriers in respiration are NAD+ & NAD
NAD+/NADH: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide is a coenzyme that plays a key role in energy
metabolism by accepting & donating electrons. Low energy from NAD+ is raised to high energy
form NADH
Intermembrane Space: It’s the spae etee the ier & outer erae of itohodria.
The main function is oxidative phosphorylation. Proton gradient is created in the
intermembrane by the ETC. This gradient is used to drive oxidative phosphorylation
Matrix: It’s the iteral spaes elosed  ier erae. The Ker Cle ours i atri. Its
also the site if the electron transport chain
Glycolysis: It’s a set of  eze atalzed reatios that reakdos gluose to releasing
energy & pyruvates. Enzyme Hexokinase phosphorylates (adds phosphate group to) glucose in
ell’s toplas. It is a etaoli proess that seres the foudatio fro aeroi & aaeroi
cellular respiration. The product of glycolysis, pyruvate, can be used in anaerobic respiration if
no oxygen is available or in aerobic respiration via the Krebs cycle which yield more usable
energy for cell.
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation: Type of metabolic reaction that results in formation of ATP by
direct transfer of phosphoryl (PO3) group to ADP. Takes place during glycolysis (cytoplasm) &
citric cycle (matrix). Does not involve ATP synthase.
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Citric Acid Cycle/Krebs Cycle: a sequence of reactions by which cells generate energy during
aerobic respiration. It takes place in mitochondria, consuming oxygen, producing carbon dioxide
and water as waster products & converting ADP to ATP. Acetyl CoA enters cycle & produces 6
NADH & 2 ATP molecules.
FAD/FADH2: Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide is a redox cofactor creates in Krebs Cycle. It is utilized
in the ETC. It produced 2 ATPs per molecule.
Electron Transport: it’s a series of opouds that trasfers eletros. The are arraged fro
easily oxidized to easily reduced. The transfer of electrons by redox reactions is coupled to the
movement of protons across a membrane producing a proton gradient. Oxygen acts as the final
electron acceptor to oxidize the final complex of the ETC. Oxygen is reduced to water.
ATP Synthase: its an enzyme located in the inner membrane. Its function is to synthesis ATP
from ADP & Pi. This is made possible from the gradient of protons which cross the
intermembrane space into the matrix,
Oxidative Phosphorylation: formation of ATP via chemiosmosis during cellular respiration. An
electrochemical gradient of protons (H+) across inner mitochondrial membrane is required to
generate ATP. ATP synthase is enzyme that makes ATP by chemiosmosis. It allows protons to
move pass membrane & uses kinetic energy to phosphorylate ATP, making ATP.
Chemiosmosis: Movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their
electrochemical gradient. Results in the generation of ATP
Proton Motive Force: it is the result of the electrochemical gradient creates across the inner
membrane. It is generated by ETC which acts as a proton pump using energy of electron from
electron carrier to pump protons. This is the force that promotes the movement of protons
across the membrane downhill the electrochemical gradient
Lactate fermentation: It’s the proess of produig ATP i the asee of oge through
glycolysis alone. The pyruvic acid from glycolysis is reduced to lactic acid by NADH, which itself is
oxidized to NAD+. This is how the muscles cells deal in the absence/ inadequate supply of
oxygen. The NAD+ is used in glycolysis to synthesis ATP
Alchohol Fermentation: a process that converts sugars into cellular energy, producing ethanol &
carbon dioxide as products.
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1. List & describe part of cellular respiration & where in cell each takes place in animal & plant
cells
Cytosol: glycolysis happens in the cytosol. Glucose is converted to pyruvate. Pyruvate is then
transported into the mitochondria
Matrix: site of ATP synthesis & location of Kerbs Cycle
Intermembrane space: space where proton motive force builds up to create a concentration
gradient
Inner Mitochondrial Membrane: embedded in the membrane is the electron transport chain &
ATP synthase
2. Describe the significance of the following molecules in respiration: Glucose, glyceraldehyde-3-
phosphate (G3P), pyruvate, Coenzyme A, Acetyl CoA , Complex I-IV, ubiquinone, Cytochrome,
C, phosphofructokinase
o Glucose: required to start process of cellular perspiration glucose is needed. Glucose is
obtained by eating carbohydrate rich foods. The cell uses various enzymes or small
proteins to speed chemical reactions to change glucose into difference molecules. The
goal of this process is to release the energy stored in the bonds of atoms that make up
glucose.
o Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P): is a chemical compound that occurs as an
intermediate in several metabolic pathways. It is a product of Calvin cycle. It’s a -
carbond sugar that is the starting point for synthesis of other carbohydrate. Some G3P
produced in cycle is used to regenerate the RuBP to continue the cycle, but some is
available for molecular synthesis & is used to make fructose.
o Pyruvate: it’s the product of glycolysis. One molecule of glucose is broken down into 2
molecules of pyruvate, which are then used provide energy in 2 different ways. In the
presences of oxygen, pyruvate takes the aerobic pathway of Krebs cycle. If no oxygen is
present, Pyruvate takes the anaerobic pathway of fermentation to still produce energy.
o Acetyl CoA: important molecule in metabolism. Its main function is to convey carbon
atoms within the acetyl group to citric acid (Krebs Cycle) to be oxidized for energy
production
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