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Bio 1000 Exam Notes.docx

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BIOL 1000
Nicole Nivillac

Lecture 6 – Cellular Respiration - Slide 1 o Metabolic Pathways  Occurs in eukaryotic organelles  Inside the mitochondria and chloroplast  Photosynthesis is present in the mitochondria  Cellular respiration is present in the chloroplast o Product from photosynthesis is oxygen/sugar o Necessary products for cellular respiration are Oxygen/Sugar. - Slide 2 o Cellular respiration  Glucose  Glycolysis  Electron Transport Chain  Glucose  Glycolysis  Pyruvate Oxidation  Electron Transport Chain  Glucose  Glycolysis  Pyruvate Oxidation  Krebs Cycle  Electron Transport Chain  Net ATP produced = 36 - Slide 3 o Redox Reactions  Transfer of electrons to an acceptor  When you oxidize, you lose electroons, Reduce you gain electrons  OIL/RIG  Donor gets oxidized, Accepter gets reduced  Glucose gets oxidized, Oxygen gets reduced  Both occur at the same time - Slide 4 o Cellular Respiration  3 parts to it  Glycolysis (Glucose to form 3 pyruvate, and ATD/NADH synthesized)  Krebs cycle (Acetyl CoA formed and oxidized to CO ,2ATP/MADH synthesized)  Electron transport chain (Proton gradient created from energy to synthesize ATP)  Glucose goes into ATP  C 6 12+66O  2CO + 6H 2 + AT2 + Heat  Aerobic respiration involves oxygen  Anaerobic doesn’t  Process of chemical reactions  Can transfer more of the energy stored in glucose to ATP if the process is done by steps - Slide 5 o Electron Carriers  NAD collects electrons from stepwise breakdown of glucose  Gets reduced to form NADH +  Electrons collected by NAD are used in ATP production  Reduced form (NADH + H ) +  Oxidized form (NAD + 2e )-  FAD is used in the electron transport chain to produce ATP  FADH is the reduced form of FAD 2 - Slide 6 o Mitochondria  Electron Transport chain occurs in the inner membrane  Outer/Inner Lauer made up of phospholipids  Intermembrane is the space between the 2 memebranes  Crisae are the fold in the mitochondria  Gives it more surface area - Slide 7 o Cellular Respiration per 1 glucose  Use up 2 ATP in the cytoplasm for Glycolysis 1  Glycolysis 2 where ATP is made produces 4 ATP/2 NADH  Pyruvate Oxidation occurs in the mitochondrial matrix producing 2 NADH  Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix as well, produces 6 NADH, 2 FADH2and 2 ATP  Electron Transport Chain occurs in the mitochondria. Produces 10 NADH and uses 2 FADH  Chemiosmosis produces 32 ATP - Slide 8 o Glycolysis  Has an energy investment and energy payoff phase  Occurs in the cytosol  Does not require Oxygen  ATP is brought in to be used  4 ATP/2 NADH/2 Pyruvate are evidence of the payoff phase  Net production = 2 ATP, Total production = 4 ATP  No carbon lost (All 6 carbons remain the same)  No carbon is lost, potential energy is changed  Hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation step  Formed when glucose gets a phosphate from ATP  Phosphofructokinase  Phosphate attached from ATP  Extract energy from sugar molecule - Slide 9 o Substrate level phosphorylation  Enzyme takes off Pi from the substrate and gives it to ADP  When ADP receives Pi, it becomes ATP - Slide 10 o Isomeration  Reconfigured the glucose molecule o Phosphofructose  Helps to break down fructose 1,6-bisphosphate o G3P  Used in cellular respiration  1 glucose creates 2 G3P  Converts 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate +  1 hydrogen to NAD , other hydrogen is used o Phosphoglycerokinsase  Involved in substrate level phosphorylation o Pyruvate Kinase  Picks up ADP  ATP from substrate level phosphorylation - Slide 11 o Pyruvate Oxidation  2 NADH, 2 CO p2oduced  CO 2oes to plants  Goes to the channel proteins  Converted to Acetyl CoA (Goes to krebs cycle) and NAD (Goes to ETC) - Slide 12 o Krebs Cycle  2 cycles in total because of the 2 acetyl CoA present  2 ATP from 2 pyruvate molecules  8 enzymes are catalyzed (6 in matrix, 1 bound to membrane and last to the matrix side)  End with what you started with  1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH ,22 CO 2re formed from 1 Acetyl CoA o Succinate (CoA-SH has phosphate added to it, GTP created, Phosphate passed from GTP to ADP creates ATP) o Oxaloacetate (Acetyl group is added to Oxaloacetate to create Citrate) o Citrate (Molecules are rearranged into isocitrate) o Succinyl CoA (2 electrons/protons transferred to NAD to create NADH  1 carbon is released as CO2  Bi-Products are NADH/CO 2 - Slide 13 o Electron Transport Chain  Occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria  Extract energy and synthesize it to ATP  Whole point is to create a proton gradient +  Transfer of Proton (H ) from Matrix to membrane space  Substrate Phosphorylatoin  Transfer of phosphate from substrate to ADP  Oxidative Phosphrylation  ATP is created with ADP and inorganic phosphate with the help of ATP Synthase  Ubiquinone, Cytochrome – C  Ubiquinone shuttles electroms from complex 1 and 2 to complex 3  Cytochrome c transfes electrons from complex 3 to complex 4  Final electron acceptor is Oxygen  Biproduct is water - Slide 14 o Oxidative Phosphorylation/Chemiosmosis  ATP Synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis using energy from proton gradient across membrane  ATP synthase is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane with electron transfer system  Helps H move freely  Flow of protons powers the synthase o Proton motive force  Gradient is present due to unequal number of protons (Electrical gradient present) o Chemiosmosis  Cells being able to use proton motive force to do work +  Energy comes from oxidation of energy rich molecules (NADPH )  H enters the stator and attaches to the rotor  This causes a conformational change  Conformational change causes the rotor to spin  Pumps substances across a membrane  This activates sites in the knob  Production of ATP (ADP+Pi  ATP) - Slide 15 o Fermentation  Occurs when there is no oxygen present for Pyruvate  Results in the products of Alcohol/Lactic Acid  Pyruvate into ethanol (2 ATP per glucose molecule)  Yeast/Bacteria are an example  OR Lactate can be produced (2 ATP)  Occurs in muscle cells - Slide 16 o Efficiency  32% of glucose entered is made into energy  Cellular respiration is regulated  Too much ATP/Citrate inhibits the phosphofructokinase process.  Sugar oxidation needed to maintain the cells need for ATP Lecture 7 – Metabolic Pathways - Slide 1 + o NADP  Electron accepted used in the Calvuin cycle to aid in sugar production - Slide 2 o Photosynthesis  2 stages  Light dependent reactions o Turn inorganic molecules into complex molecules  Light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle) o Pigments capture light o Synthesizes ATP/NADPH - Slide 3 o Chloroplast  Calvin cycle occurs in the chloroplast  Thylakoid  Light absorption by chlorophylls/carotenoid  Electron transfer  Membrane within the stroma  ATP synthesis by ATP Synthase  Thylakoid lumen is space enclosed by thylakoid o Has molecules that carry out light reactions of photosynthesis o Include pigments, atp synthase, electron transport enzymes  Stroma  Around thylakoids  Aquaeous area in the inner membrane  Calvin cycle occurs here - Slide 4 o Chlorophyll/Carotenoids  Main pigment in photosynthesis (carotenoid)  Have 2 chlorophyll present  Chlorophyll A (Main one) o Becomes oxidized  Chlorophyll B/Corotenoid are helpers  Help transfer light o Absorption Spectrum  Indicates how well a pigment can absorb the wavelength  Peak indicates the level  What length can be captured o Action spectrum  Indicates how efficient photosynthesis will be  Wavelength vs. Absorption - Slide 5 o Absorb length  Structure determines what wavelength can be absorbed  Variation can alter the absorption/structure of photon  Magnesium is used to absorb it longer - Slide 6 o Photosystem  Photosystem 1 = p700  Photosystem 2 = p680  Energy goes to the reaction center  Composed of antenna complex  Made up of pigments that surround the reaction center  Binds to the a Chlorophyll A  Photon is absorbed in antenna complex by pigments  Trap photons and use the energy to oxidize the reaction center  Energy is transferred to Chlorophyll A  Then to primary electron acceptor  Transferred through ETC  Electrons come from the splitting of H O 2  Replace the electrons lost in Chlorophyll A +  2H contributes to proton gradient - Slide 7 o Linear Electron Transport  Goal is to get a proton gradient  Needed for ATP Synthase  Photosystem 2 = p680  Energy goes to the reaction center  Leads to electron being excited and then oxidized by pheophytin  Redox of platoquinone (Donates electrons to cytochrome-C)  Electron transfer from cytochrome c  P700 is oxidized/reduced  Electrons go to NADP reducing it to NADPH +  Proton to stroma to lumen  NADPH and O ar2 products  Get involved in the Calvin Cycle - Slide 8 o Cyclic Electron Transport  NO donation of electrons to NADPH  Instead goes to plastoquinone pool  Net result is light to ATP  Due to the need of ATP, no point of a linear with Cyclic as ATP amount increases +  Need 3 more ATP in Calvin Cycle then NADPH  Thylakoid has proton movement + +  Light converted into ATP without NADP to NADPH  Does not have photosystem 2 - Slide 9 o Similarities  Both have a proton gradient  ATP synthase is present in both o Difference  Cellular respiration in the mitochondria  Photosynthesis in chloroplast - Slide 10 o Calvin cycle  Fixation of CO 2  Carbon to RuBP, to produce 2 three carbon molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate  Reduction of 3-phosphate glycerate to G3P  ATP Hydrolyzed  NADH Oxidized  Regeneration of RuBP from G3P  Per every turn, 1 CO2enters  Calvin Cycle occurs In the stroma  Rubisco catalyzes the fixation of Carbon  Catalyzes first reaction of Calvin Cycle  Get 6 G3P, 6 Phosphoglycerate  2 cycle turns to get a glucose molecule - Slide 11 o Light reaction  Occurs in thylakoid  Move electrons to high energy orbit  Energy used to help to create a H concentration gradient  NADPH/ATP is created - Slide 12 o Calvin Cycle in brief  Occurs in the stroma  Produces G3P (sugar)  CO 2rom the air is used  NADPH from Light reaction & ATP from light reaction - Slide 13 o Cell Cycle  Growth and repair/replication  Varies between cells  Period of growth followed by nuclear division/cytokinesis  Mitosis divides replicated DNA equally and precisely  Chromosomes  Unit of genetic information that is divided and distributed - Slide 14 o Cell division  Splitting of one cell into two  Parent cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells  Parents cells dies after replication  Needed for  Reproduction  Growth and development (increase the number of cells)  Tissue repair (Repair dead cells)  Mitosis is the cell division of somatic cells  Meiosis is the division of germ cells - Slide 15 o Chromatin  DNA with protein  Chromosome is part of chromatin  23 chromosomes  XY = Males  XX = females - Slide 16 o DNA Organization  Histone Pack DNA  Non-Histone regulate gene expression  H1 cause the formation of solenoid - Slide 17 o Chromosomes  23 different chromosomes  Composed of Linear DNA molecules and protein  Humans are diploids  Haploid is # of different chromosomes  2n for Diploid, n = haploid  Euchromatin have active genes (For RNA Transcription)  Heterochromatin have inactive genes  Chromatid is the name of the 2 same daughter cells - Slide 18 o Chromosomes/Cell Division  Chromosomes are recognizable during mitosis  When a cell is not dividing, the chromosomes are thin  Each daughter cell contains the same DNA as parent cell  Only the amount of DNA changes  Not the number of different chromosomes  Condensation occurs (Folds and coils up giving it a shorter appearance) - Slide 19 o Mitosis  DNA replication needs to occur prior for the process to occur  2 sets of all DNA exists  One set goes to each daughter cell  Amount of DNA changes  Everything is in a double helix format  Replication occurs in pairs called sister chromatids - Slide 20 o Centromeme/Kinetochore  Sister chromatids are attached at a region called Centromere  Kinetochore are associated with this region  DNA replicates in uncondensed form - Slide 21 o Cell Cycle  Interphase/Mitosis/Cytokinesis  Interphase has 3 steps (G1, S, G2) o G1 (Prepare and produce more protein)  Cell makes RNA, proteins but not DNA  Cell can stop dividing here o S (Synthesis and DNA replication)  Initiated by DNA replication  Cell duplicates chromosomal proteins/DNA o G2 (cell grows further for division)  No DNA synt
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