Study Guides (248,277)
Canada (121,450)
York University (10,193)
Biology (573)
BIOL 1000 (195)
Final

Bio 1000 Exam Notes.docx

18 Pages
423 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1000
Professor
Nicole Nivillac
Semester
Summer

Description
Lecture 6 – Cellular Respiration - Slide 1 o Metabolic Pathways  Occurs in eukaryotic organelles  Inside the mitochondria and chloroplast  Photosynthesis is present in the mitochondria  Cellular respiration is present in the chloroplast o Product from photosynthesis is oxygen/sugar o Necessary products for cellular respiration are Oxygen/Sugar. - Slide 2 o Cellular respiration  Glucose  Glycolysis  Electron Transport Chain  Glucose  Glycolysis  Pyruvate Oxidation  Electron Transport Chain  Glucose  Glycolysis  Pyruvate Oxidation  Krebs Cycle  Electron Transport Chain  Net ATP produced = 36 - Slide 3 o Redox Reactions  Transfer of electrons to an acceptor  When you oxidize, you lose electroons, Reduce you gain electrons  OIL/RIG  Donor gets oxidized, Accepter gets reduced  Glucose gets oxidized, Oxygen gets reduced  Both occur at the same time - Slide 4 o Cellular Respiration  3 parts to it  Glycolysis (Glucose to form 3 pyruvate, and ATD/NADH synthesized)  Krebs cycle (Acetyl CoA formed and oxidized to CO ,2ATP/MADH synthesized)  Electron transport chain (Proton gradient created from energy to synthesize ATP)  Glucose goes into ATP  C 6 12+66O  2CO + 6H 2 + AT2 + Heat  Aerobic respiration involves oxygen  Anaerobic doesn’t  Process of chemical reactions  Can transfer more of the energy stored in glucose to ATP if the process is done by steps - Slide 5 o Electron Carriers  NAD collects electrons from stepwise breakdown of glucose  Gets reduced to form NADH +  Electrons collected by NAD are used in ATP production  Reduced form (NADH + H ) +  Oxidized form (NAD + 2e )-  FAD is used in the electron transport chain to produce ATP  FADH is the reduced form of FAD 2 - Slide 6 o Mitochondria  Electron Transport chain occurs in the inner membrane  Outer/Inner Lauer made up of phospholipids  Intermembrane is the space between the 2 memebranes  Crisae are the fold in the mitochondria  Gives it more surface area - Slide 7 o Cellular Respiration per 1 glucose  Use up 2 ATP in the cytoplasm for Glycolysis 1  Glycolysis 2 where ATP is made produces 4 ATP/2 NADH  Pyruvate Oxidation occurs in the mitochondrial matrix producing 2 NADH  Krebs cycle occurs in the matrix as well, produces 6 NADH, 2 FADH2and 2 ATP  Electron Transport Chain occurs in the mitochondria. Produces 10 NADH and uses 2 FADH  Chemiosmosis produces 32 ATP - Slide 8 o Glycolysis  Has an energy investment and energy payoff phase  Occurs in the cytosol  Does not require Oxygen  ATP is brought in to be used  4 ATP/2 NADH/2 Pyruvate are evidence of the payoff phase  Net production = 2 ATP, Total production = 4 ATP  No carbon lost (All 6 carbons remain the same)  No carbon is lost, potential energy is changed  Hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation step  Formed when glucose gets a phosphate from ATP  Phosphofructokinase  Phosphate attached from ATP  Extract energy from sugar molecule - Slide 9 o Substrate level phosphorylation  Enzyme takes off Pi from the substrate and gives it to ADP  When ADP receives Pi, it becomes ATP - Slide 10 o Isomeration  Reconfigured the glucose molecule o Phosphofructose  Helps to break down fructose 1,6-bisphosphate o G3P  Used in cellular respiration  1 glucose creates 2 G3P  Converts 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate +  1 hydrogen to NAD , other hydrogen is used o Phosphoglycerokinsase  Involved in substrate level phosphorylation o Pyruvate Kinase  Picks up ADP  ATP from substrate level phosphorylation - Slide 11 o Pyruvate Oxidation  2 NADH, 2 CO p2oduced  CO 2oes to plants  Goes to the channel proteins  Converted to Acetyl CoA (Goes to krebs cycle) and NAD (Goes to ETC) - Slide 12 o Krebs Cycle  2 cycles in total because of the 2 acetyl CoA present  2 ATP from 2 pyruvate molecules  8 enzymes are catalyzed (6 in matrix, 1 bound to membrane and last to the matrix side)  End with what you started with  1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH ,22 CO 2re formed from 1 Acetyl CoA o Succinate (CoA-SH has phosphate added to it, GTP created, Phosphate passed from GTP to ADP creates ATP) o Oxaloacetate (Acetyl group is added to Oxaloacetate to create Citrate) o Citrate (Molecules are rearranged into isocitrate) o Succinyl CoA (2 electrons/protons transferred to NAD to create NADH  1 carbon is released as CO2  Bi-Products are NADH/CO 2 - Slide 13 o Electron Transport Chain  Occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria  Extract energy and synthesize it to ATP  Whole point is to create a proton gradient +  Transfer of Proton (H ) from Matrix to membrane space  Substrate Phosphorylatoin  Transfer of phosphate from substrate to ADP  Oxidative Phosphrylation  ATP is created with ADP and inorganic phosphate with the help of ATP Synthase  Ubiquinone, Cytochrome – C  Ubiquinone shuttles electroms from complex 1 and 2 to complex 3  Cytochrome c transfes electrons from complex 3 to complex 4  Final electron acceptor is Oxygen  Biproduct is water - Slide 14 o Oxidative Phosphorylation/Chemiosmosis  ATP Synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis using energy from proton gradient across membrane  ATP synthase is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane with electron transfer system  Helps H move freely  Flow of protons powers the synthase o Proton motive force  Gradient is present due to unequal number of protons (Electrical gradient present) o Chemiosmosis  Cells being able to use proton motive force to do work +  Energy comes from oxidation of energy rich molecules (NADPH )  H enters the stator and attaches to the rotor  This causes a conformational change  Conformational change causes the rotor to spin  Pumps substances across a membrane  This activates sites in the knob  Production of ATP (ADP+Pi  ATP) - Slide 15 o Fermentation  Occurs when there is no oxygen present for Pyruvate  Results in the products of Alcohol/Lactic Acid  Pyruvate into ethanol (2 ATP per glucose molecule)  Yeast/Bacteria are an example  OR Lactate can be produced (2 ATP)  Occurs in muscle cells - Slide 16 o Efficiency  32% of glucose entered is made into energy  Cellular respiration is regulated  Too much ATP/Citrate inhibits the phosphofructokinase process.  Sugar oxidation needed to maintain the cells need for ATP Lecture 7 – Metabolic Pathways - Slide 1 + o NADP  Electron accepted used in the Calvuin cycle to aid in sugar production - Slide 2 o Photosynthesis  2 stages  Light dependent reactions o Turn inorganic molecules into complex molecules  Light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle) o Pigments capture light o Synthesizes ATP/NADPH - Slide 3 o Chloroplast  Calvin cycle occurs in the chloroplast  Thylakoid  Light absorption by chlorophylls/carotenoid  Electron transfer  Membrane within the stroma  ATP synthesis by ATP Synthase  Thylakoid lumen is space enclosed by thylakoid o Has molecules that carry out light reactions of photosynthesis o Include pigments, atp synthase, electron transport enzymes  Stroma  Around thylakoids  Aquaeous area in the inner membrane  Calvin cycle occurs here - Slide 4 o Chlorophyll/Carotenoids  Main pigment in photosynthesis (carotenoid)  Have 2 chlorophyll present  Chlorophyll A (Main one) o Becomes oxidized  Chlorophyll B/Corotenoid are helpers  Help transfer light o Absorption Spectrum  Indicates how well a pigment can absorb the wavelength  Peak indicates the level  What length can be captured o Action spectrum  Indicates how efficient photosynthesis will be  Wavelength vs. Absorption - Slide 5 o Absorb length  Structure determines what wavelength can be absorbed  Variation can alter the absorption/structure of photon  Magnesium is used to absorb it longer - Slide 6 o Photosystem  Photosystem 1 = p700  Photosystem 2 = p680  Energy goes to the reaction center  Composed of antenna complex  Made up of pigments that surround the reaction center  Binds to the a Chlorophyll A  Photon is absorbed in antenna complex by pigments  Trap photons and use the energy to oxidize the reaction center  Energy is transferred to Chlorophyll A  Then to primary electron acceptor  Transferred through ETC  Electrons come from the splitting of H O 2  Replace the electrons lost in Chlorophyll A +  2H contributes to proton gradient - Slide 7 o Linear Electron Transport  Goal is to get a proton gradient  Needed for ATP Synthase  Photosystem 2 = p680  Energy goes to the reaction center  Leads to electron being excited and then oxidized by pheophytin  Redox of platoquinone (Donates electrons to cytochrome-C)  Electron transfer from cytochrome c  P700 is oxidized/reduced  Electrons go to NADP reducing it to NADPH +  Proton to stroma to lumen  NADPH and O ar2 products  Get involved in the Calvin Cycle - Slide 8 o Cyclic Electron Transport  NO donation of electrons to NADPH  Instead goes to plastoquinone pool  Net result is light to ATP  Due to the need of ATP, no point of a linear with Cyclic as ATP amount increases +  Need 3 more ATP in Calvin Cycle then NADPH  Thylakoid has proton movement + +  Light converted into ATP without NADP to NADPH  Does not have photosystem 2 - Slide 9 o Similarities  Both have a proton gradient  ATP synthase is present in both o Difference  Cellular respiration in the mitochondria  Photosynthesis in chloroplast - Slide 10 o Calvin cycle  Fixation of CO 2  Carbon to RuBP, to produce 2 three carbon molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate  Reduction of 3-phosphate glycerate to G3P  ATP Hydrolyzed  NADH Oxidized  Regeneration of RuBP from G3P  Per every turn, 1 CO2enters  Calvin Cycle occurs In the stroma  Rubisco catalyzes the fixation of Carbon  Catalyzes first reaction of Calvin Cycle  Get 6 G3P, 6 Phosphoglycerate  2 cycle turns to get a glucose molecule - Slide 11 o Light reaction  Occurs in thylakoid  Move electrons to high energy orbit  Energy used to help to create a H concentration gradient  NADPH/ATP is created - Slide 12 o Calvin Cycle in brief  Occurs in the stroma  Produces G3P (sugar)  CO 2rom the air is used  NADPH from Light reaction & ATP from light reaction - Slide 13 o Cell Cycle  Growth and repair/replication  Varies between cells  Period of growth followed by nuclear division/cytokinesis  Mitosis divides replicated DNA equally and precisely  Chromosomes  Unit of genetic information that is divided and distributed - Slide 14 o Cell division  Splitting of one cell into two  Parent cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells  Parents cells dies after replication  Needed for  Reproduction  Growth and development (increase the number of cells)  Tissue repair (Repair dead cells)  Mitosis is the cell division of somatic cells  Meiosis is the division of germ cells - Slide 15 o Chromatin  DNA with protein  Chromosome is part of chromatin  23 chromosomes  XY = Males  XX = females - Slide 16 o DNA Organization  Histone Pack DNA  Non-Histone regulate gene expression  H1 cause the formation of solenoid - Slide 17 o Chromosomes  23 different chromosomes  Composed of Linear DNA molecules and protein  Humans are diploids  Haploid is # of different chromosomes  2n for Diploid, n = haploid  Euchromatin have active genes (For RNA Transcription)  Heterochromatin have inactive genes  Chromatid is the name of the 2 same daughter cells - Slide 18 o Chromosomes/Cell Division  Chromosomes are recognizable during mitosis  When a cell is not dividing, the chromosomes are thin  Each daughter cell contains the same DNA as parent cell  Only the amount of DNA changes  Not the number of different chromosomes  Condensation occurs (Folds and coils up giving it a shorter appearance) - Slide 19 o Mitosis  DNA replication needs to occur prior for the process to occur  2 sets of all DNA exists  One set goes to each daughter cell  Amount of DNA changes  Everything is in a double helix format  Replication occurs in pairs called sister chromatids - Slide 20 o Centromeme/Kinetochore  Sister chromatids are attached at a region called Centromere  Kinetochore are associated with this region  DNA replicates in uncondensed form - Slide 21 o Cell Cycle  Interphase/Mitosis/Cytokinesis  Interphase has 3 steps (G1, S, G2) o G1 (Prepare and produce more protein)  Cell makes RNA, proteins but not DNA  Cell can stop dividing here o S (Synthesis and DNA replication)  Initiated by DNA replication  Cell duplicates chromosomal proteins/DNA o G2 (cell grows further for division)  No DNA synt
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit