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Midterm

Exam 1st Semester Review.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Communication Studies
Course Code
COMN 1000
Professor
Joan Steigerwald

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Description
COMN 1000- Review Sheet 1. Agenda Setting: process by which priorities are established: it usually refers to elite actors or media owners and managers using their influence to shape governments‟ priorities 2. Access to Information: freedom of info- principle that info collected by governments belongs to the crown and citizens must appeal to governments for access to info; operating principle in Canada V.S. in the United States freedom of info is more appropriate term because info collected by governments belongs to the people 3. Advertorials: promotional material written in editorial form and thinly disguised as normal journalism (newspapers and magazines have these, with an agreement with the advertisers “advertising features‟) 4. Audience Commodity: Audience commodity is the main product produced by media that earn their primary revenues from advertisers. Traditionally, advertiser supported media have included newspaper, magazines; commercial forms of radio broadcast, television and cable television. For advertiser-supported media, the task is to assemble an audience commodity, which is a group of people to whom advertisers want to sell their wares. 5. Audience Reach: Audience Reach is a term used in advertising to determine statistically what people are using to find their information. When referring to search engines, it is the total percentage of the total Internet population that utilizes a particular search engine. Audience reach is one of the two major factors used when calculating the popularity of a search engine, the other being search hours. 6. Audience Share: Audience share is the portion of the group of people who might receive an advertising message or who are aware of interest to the advertiser and who actually do receive the message.. 7. Auteur Theory: Assigns primary responsibility for a creative work to a clearly identified author and to the body of work produced by that author; in a film the author is taken to the director as opposed to the producer, scriptwriter or director of photography 8. Complexity vs. Reductionism: Complexity can be described as the opposite of reductionism, full information is disclosed and is left for the reader to interpret. Reductionism is media simplification and dramatization. The reduce people and events into something they are not, encouraging negative and hostile reactions in those who do not otherwise participate in society. Dramatic tensions encourage us to form firm opinions on debates of which we know only what the media tells us, of which we possess only a shallow simulation. The media creates a scenario and takes no responsibility for it. 9. Content Analysis: Quantitative research- specified phrases, sentences, nouns, verbs, paragraphs, -indicate the meaning or perspective of a communication 10. Culture: A complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals and law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by a man as a member of a society. 11. Cultural Model of Communication: Two models of communication exists- transmission model, which relates communication to transportation and cultural model, which is how human culture influences the manner in which the message is interpreted and decoded. (insert model) 12. Cultural Studies: Derived from Marxist perspective that extended the analysis of class to race and gender and in general, examined the nature of the cultural relations of the society being studied; cultural studies asserted the legitimacy of popular culture forms as objects of study 13. Critical Theory: Point of view that claims that human beings have choices in the development of technology, in its shape, its use, the degree and manner in which to engage with it, and ultimately, it impact on society 14. Demographics: Population through the identification of characteristics of a given population (age, gender) also describes a specific group that may be identified through such analysis 15. Denotative Meaning: Explicit, communication; in communication theory, words and messages are said to have both denotative and connotative meaning 16. Connotative Meaning: Implicit, suggesting, implying; a connotation is an implied meaning; in communication theory, words and messages are said to have connotative and denotative meanings 17. Discourse: Research method that identifies communication patterns and convections in the production of meaning; that is, what category of person uses what conventions in which context to mean what 18. Dominant Ideology: Set of ideas most commonly used to explain events in a given society; conventional wisdom or conventional explanations of phenomena that are taken by most people as unchallenged assumptions 19. Economies of Scale: Efficiencies in costs that can be achieved via repetition of some aspects of the production and distribution processes and the elimination of other processes-ex. reduction of per unit cost of printing 10,000 copies of a book once the presses have been set up, as opposed to 1,000 copies. 20. Effects of Research: method that seeks to identify the direct impacts of the media on human behavior 21. Enlightenment: An early eighteenth-century change in Western European world view distinguished by an intellectual approach based on a scientific and rational perspective of the world, a fundamental shift in the view that championed science over religion, justice over the abuse of power, and a social contract that specified individual rights and freedom over the absolutist rule of kings and popes. 22. Feminist Media Research: Critical of the character of modern societies for the male domination of women (patriarchy) that has led to profound human inequalities and injustices 23. Frankfurt School: school of thought led by the German Jewish men Max Horkheimer, Theodore Adorno and Herbert Marcuse who argued that cultural life in modern times has been profoundly changed by the detrimental impact of capitalist methods of mass production 24. Fourth Estate: the media; refers to the role of the media in watching over the other powerful initiations in society 25. Gatekeeping: controlling access to media publication or broadcast and determines what gains access according to the identity or character of the media outlet 26. Global Village: metaphor introduced by Marshall McLuhan that captures the sense in which the possibility of instantaneous communication brings societies closer together 27. Ideology: social values, beliefs, meanings; in Marxist terms it is a critical concept that refers particularly to dominant or ruling-class values, beliefs and meanings, what came to be called the dominant ideology 28. Industry Audience Research: 29. Indeterminacy of Representation: inability to account for or describe something fully and completely; the inability to control what a communication can mean 30. Inverted Pyramid: presentation of a story in a form in which the most important info-who, what, where, when and why- is addressed at the beginning followed by development of the story and the context in which it happened; the most common form of news stories 31. Libel Law: published written statement that does damage to the good reputation of a person, in France and the US, libel can express true facts, while in the UK and derivative systems, truth is an absolute defense against an accusation of libel- any false or insulting statement 32. Literary Criticism: analysis of literature-dealing with the effectiveness of the author in creating his or her intended response, at other times descriptive of the referential framework of the author when the text was created 33. Marxist Media Studies: (Marxism) studying society that derives from the writings of Karl Marx, who emphasized
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