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CRIM 2652
Anna Pratt

Policing III: Current trends November 21 st 1. Race and the community 2. Critiques of professional law enforcement model 3. Emergence and development of community policing and other models 4. Introduction to police accountability Open secret: less easy to deny • 14 shootings of black men and 1 woman between 1978 and 1992 • Black communities demand change • 1992: Rodney king, Raymond Lawrence “riots” • 1992: Stephan lewis: special advisor on race relations • Commission on racism in the Ontario CJS (report 1995)  2002: Toronto star series • Simple drug possession and traffic violations • Focus on discretionary actions of police • Results showed clear pattern of racial difference in patterns of arrest  Denied by Toronto police (Chief Fantino)  Libel suit launched by police association against the Toronto star –law suit was dismissed by the supreme court  Found that blacks were disproportionately arrested than whites “I don’t think a day will come, in my lifetime, when I won’t be profiled or identified for who I am, and what I am.” J. Burke, 28 years old, Toronto. “It is a fact of life that police are harsher in their enforcement of the law with blacks. I have been stopped, because ‘I looked suspicious,’ or ‘We have reports of auto thefts in the area, and you match the description.’” W. Ward, Toronto “I have to remind myself to take my baseball cap, winter toque or hood on my winter jacket off when I get into someone’s car. My biggest fear is that they (police) will think that I’m some sort of drug-dealing thug. Those are just a few of the things that young black men like myself have to deal with on a daily basis.” E. Miller, Scarborough Wortley and Tanner (2000)  Interviewed 3400 toronto high school students and interactions with police  More than 40% of black students compared to 16% of white students had been stopped and searched by the police in the last 2 years  34% of black students who had NOT engaged in any type of criminal activity, compared to only 4% of white students who had NOT engaged in criminal activity, had been stopped by the police. Definitions of racism and racial profiling Individual racism: attitudes about race that generalize and make judgements about people based on their belonging to identifiable groups and that are articulated by individuals Systemic racism: the ways in which assumptions about racialized groups get incorporated into policies, procedures, practices, and organizational routines such that they become taken for granted and invisible. For example, racial profiling. “Racial profiling occurs when law enforcement or security officials, consciously or unconsciously, subject individuals at any location to heightened scrutiny based solely or in part on race, ethnicity, place of origin, ancestry, or religion, or on stereotypes associated with any of these factors rather than on objectively reasonable grounds to suspect that the individual is implicated in criminal activity. “ (Tanovich, p. 13). in 2010, chief blair acknowledged that biased decision making is a big issue  the police defend carding as an investigative tool  they target areas where violent crimes are taking place Police position on carding:  Valuable investigative tool  Makes important links between places and people  Target areas where violent crime is taking place  Needs to be done in ways that do not harm relations with the community  The relationship between the community with the police has a direct correlation to the amount of support the police will receive. Critics: of police carding  the practice discriminates against racialized communities, young black men in particular  the practice violates the Canadian charter of rights and freedoms (ss. 8.9)  inefficient and counter-productive strategy for gathering information Chief Blair interview for the star series (2010) Blair sa
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