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ENVS 2200 Midterm Terms.docx

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York University
Environmental Studies
ENVS 2200
Stefan Kipfer

Segregation – Nightingale defines segregation as racial control, or the separation of multiple groups. It can be seen as racial, geographical, religious, sex and residential segregation Significance: Play into the theme of class conflict as well as how urban settings have been developed in order to keep racial groups separated Example: From Nightingale reading, white people in Baltimore wanted to extend segregation to the city’s residential neighbourhood. Mayor Barry Mahool signed the segregation ordinance into law, dividing every street into “white blocks” and “coloured blocks”. Set a $100 fine and up to a year in jail for anyone who moved to a block set aside for another race Racism- is generally defined as actions, practices, or beliefs that consider the human species to be divided intoraces with shared traits, abilities, or qualities, such as personality, intellect, morality, or other cultural behavioral characteristics, and especially the belief that races can be ranked as inherently superior or inferior to others, or that members of different races should be treated differently. Race is a paradox; it is a biological illusion but is persistent in social reality. It is not human nature; it is a product of history and human practice. Individual or social phenomenon Significance: If we understand racism, we can understand the idea behind segregation. White people believed they were inherently superior to any other race, therefore believed they should live separately from them.Also crucial in understanding class relations. Ranking racial groups into a hierarchy Example: TheApartheid in South Africa, which is mentioned in the Nightingale reading. This was the most radical form of urban racial segregation enforced by National Party governments. - Exoticism in Hamilton (putting indian head on monument) - Ghettoization in Baltimore Porosity - or void fraction is a measure of the empty spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0 and 100% Significance: metaphor for fluid transitions between work and leisure, formal and informal economy, street and domestic space, public and private life Example: Professor talks about the time (clock) of capitalism in lecture 9. Time is measurable and divisible, a repetitive sequence of inter-changeable instants Sitcom Suburb – Important reference point in mass culture. Suburbs are now standardized, planned product of integrated development industry. The state subsidized oil, water and sewage, mortgage insurance and roads. Elements of the picturesque enclave are recycled, and households become machines for consumption. Sitcoms and films thrived because they were about model families in new communities where every family ad a house, a car and a television. Television reached all houses, and because of this, many saw the tract house as an emblem of belonging and upward mobility Significance: Families moved into a culture of consumption and became dependent on cars. It is accurate to say that the sitcom suburbs complicated class relationships rather than erasing them. Race and gender were set against class in a painful way. The long-term economic effects of racial and gender exclusions were heightened by the vast scale of new tracts and by their promotion in mass culture Example: Park Forest in the Sitcom Suburbs reading Industrial Suburb – These were company to
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