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ENVS 2200 Study Guide - Final Guide: Welfare, Spinning Jenny

Environmental Studies
Course Code
ENVS 2200
Stefan Kipfer
Study Guide

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Baron Haussmann = urban designer without commitments to social reform or
social altenatives.
Paris, had substandard housing, poor public health and disenfranchised
population. Old neighbouthoods in east = helped revolutions/mobs
Haussmann destroyed homes of 15,000 people in heart of city and built wide,
straight, boulevards = made difficult to put barricade and easy to move troops
(ALGIERS). Altered city by moving center of paris to north west, where rich
Friedrich engels (1890-95) – interested in capitalistm & active in textile trade
Manchester (1842) – manager in family business in cotton exchange.
Describes Industrial Revolution driven by technological changes (ie: invention of
spinning jenny 1974)
Concentration in towns due to
oMechanical power
oIron smelting
Working conditions = dreadful living conditions, high death rate, poor housing,
inadequate food.
Met Marx 1844 –industrial city = capitalist mode of production
Engels = city saved people from rural life by giving them collective strength
Marxist theory = rapid industrialization and urbanization lead to class formation
and class identity.
English working also had sub-classes = sports clubs, burial clubs, religion,
political affiliations, trade unions.
1860s – new labor aristocracies forms, working class more segmented.
Political power of organized working class transformed good from private (based
on income) to public (based on citizenship)
Industrial workers became source of social stability
Strong residential segregation = ethnic inequality = lack of labor solidarity =
unions got factory or industry wide concessions rather then social welfare
provision (ex: Scandinavian countries better welfare than US)
Race trumped class in US.
Ex: steel town Birmingham, Alabama = until 1950s city planning was dominated by
racial segregation of African Americans in poorly maintain and isolated communities.
Edge cities suburbs- fast growing and privatized. Consumers of suburbs. Both
special and social and very economic (aka rich)
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