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GEOG 1000 Midterm Exam Questions.docx

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York University
GEOG 1000

1. Borders are closely linked with the governance of states, their international relations, and the make-up of their populations. How have the functions of borders in North America changed since the 1800s? Focus on either the US-Mexican or the Canada-US border.  Borders are not natural  Borders provide security of terrorists  US-Mexico border: o Created the new wall  Keep out unwanted immigrants entering the U.S from Mexico  Expands through the whole Arizona, Mexico border  Function of the border: o Economy: tolls o Culture: o Mobility: migration, visa, checkpoints o Geopolitical: interactions with other states o Security: after 9/11, prevent crimes, terrorism, threats  After 9/11, more security in the U.S borders, both Canada and Mexico  Before o no fortified borders o no private property o unified countries  During the Cold War, first borders were created to protect Canada and the US  Immigrants came in the early 20 century  Deportation started in the 1930’s  In 1970-1980 many undocumented migrants entered the US, start of fortified borders  Summary from 1800’s Borders o Colonial border o National border o Frontier border o Anti-immigration border o Geopolitical border o Security border 2. Canada prides itself on being a multicultural society. Has Canada always been multicultural? How has this changed, and are there still effects of earlier policies in the definition of who is “Canadian”?  Toronto is multicultural today  Multiculturalism is a variety of cultures  Canada has not always been multicultural  Before, minorities were excluded  1885: Chinese Immigration Act  1910: Immigration Act o Sent people away (denied them) because they were not suited for Canada’s climate  1914: Komagata Maru (Indians) o The ship carrying South Asians, mostly Indians were rejected and sent back to India  1962: Immigration opened its doors to migrants  1967: Point system was brought to the immigration policy  1971: multiculturalism was brought as a bilingual framework  Canada integrates its citizen (salad bowl)  Ethnic neighborhoods are now seen as tourist attractions  Some racism still occurs today, but multiculturalism has evolved drastically in the last century  Many are welcomed into the country now that were rejected or treated poorly in the past 3. Question crossed off 4. Not yet done 5. North American electoral geography is characterized by a very specific role of space in political representation and elections. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this role of territoriality? Explain using examples from both Canada and the US.  Electoral geography: special strategies for political power  It is the result of segregation and social un-mixing  Canada o ?  U.S o 1812: creation of gerrymandering o Gerrymandering: the creation of electoral districts to suit political means  Ca n be used to empower minorities  Highlights the shortcomings of First past the post  be used to ensure majorities for one political party  But also of specific strategies to create territorial blinds to candidates o Highlights the shortcomings of First past the post o Can be used to ensure majorities for one political party  First past the post: riding system does not always fully represent the proportion of votes o Minority interest is not represented o Individuals matter o Incentives for riding – based political strategies  Pork Barrel spending o “Earmarks”, US federal spending dedicated to the projects/ districts of individuals reps o Example: “bridge to nowhere” in Alaska 6. “Cohesion” is an important aspect of EU policy. What is the purpose of this policy, and how does it work? How is the practice of EU cohesion policy different from a traditional welfare state approach?  The EU o Creation of political party o Creation of territory o Creation of unified border police  Large scale countries endanger the unity of the territory via unequal opportunities, parties/elections, and imperialism  The EU have 3 objectives for the nations to be cohesive o Convergence (supporting poorer regions) o Competitiveness (general programme) o Territorial cooperation  How the policy works: o Member states fund the EU institutions o Funds are administer through provinces not nation states o Protect groups such as NGO, public and private actors  Only project-based, not direct individual payments/welfare  The EU provides extra funding for specific regions whereas state would only care for its own country. The EU mainly consists of the whole European Union nations. 7. The European Union is based on a set of treaties between states, but it is also more than that. How has the development of the EU been influenced by and reflected on energy projects? Explain the relevance of at least three energy-related projects for the European Union.  European Union: a unique economic and political partnership between 27 countries  Originally began as an economic cooperation meaning that if countries trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict. Then it evolved into an organization that created policies regarding development aid to environment issues  The EU created security and sustainability in the oil projects  Energy related projects: o Denmark: by the year of 2050 , 100 %renewable energy o Sweden: becoming oil free by 2020 o Germany: phase out of nuclear by 2020 8. The Eurocrisis is at the centre of current debates about Europe. How has the financial crisis reshaped the EU and how can its causes and effects be analyzed geographically?  These are many crisis going on in the EU but not all countries are affected the same way  The most affected countries are countries such as Greece, Portugal, Spain  There is great debt, especially in the Eurozone crisis countries: Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Italy  Western Europe in better position than rest of Europe  The Euro acts as a burden to poorer countries  Germany is profiting by staying in the Euro since the Euro is a low currency  Many countries in the EU play the blame game  Trade surplus and deficit need to be balanced or at least trade surplus has to be higher  Wealth is not distributed equally amongst nations, leaving some nations poorer than others  The core of Europe is the marginal Europe 9. How does breaking the world into regions compare to other ways of conceptually breaking up (or imagining) the world? Through your answer, show both the strengths and weaknesses of this approach (i.e., of breaking the world into regions).  Region: describing and organizing the world, shaped by power relations  4 stages for making nations: o Territorial shape: boundaries o Symbolic shape o Institutions o Establishment  Regions are not natural  Many explorers explored the world to break the world into
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