KEY TERMS (WINTER TERM)
Energy Transition/ Labour Transition
• Referring to the period of industrialization (1867-1914) that took place primarily in Ontario and
Quebec (the two major urban centers)
• The two main changes of industrialization:
1. Transition in the nature of labour: society moves from self-provisioning to wage
2. Transition in the nature of energy use: society moves from organic to mineral energy sources.
• Organic energy comes mostly from the sun (ex: burning fuel wood, horse pulling plow to grow
wheat for energy, activities that require energy that comes from food that comes from sun’s
energy). Coal stores and stocks solar energy and can be unleashed much quicker, and with more
energy than with organic sources. Gave people more time to do other things- reduced the amount
of labour for self-provisioning, and encouraged people to find work for wages.
Pre-Industrial Social Gospel
• Christian evangelical reform movement; “Kingdom of God on Earth”; mainly in the late 19 andh
early 20 centuries
• Central belief that God was at work in social change, creating moral order and social justice.
• These people saw people as good, but society as bad (ex: people are poor because of society, not
because of the individual’s failures)
• Social control or direct support?
• Many of these movements addressed urban poverty (ex: Salvation Army 1882 helping the poor)
but also concerned other factors (ex: Rescue Home For Girls 1886 protecting girls at risk for being
lured into prostitution)
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
• An example of compulsion (forcing people to be good) dedicated to social reform
• A movement to eliminate alcohol consumption and prohibition. They believed that all problems
traced back to alcohol: poverty, prostitution, violence, disease, crime, etc.
• Also involved how to expand women’s political and civil rights in public sphere
Equal Rights Feminism/ Maternal Feminism
• Both apart of the first wave feminism
• Equal rights feminism: expanded rights for women that would make them equal to men. This
movement tended to a minority view.
• Maternal feminism: expanded political and civil rights and an expanded role in the public life
because they are distinct from men, not equal to men.
War Measures Act 1914
• Passed by Prime Minister Robert Borden after the outbreak of WWI
• Granted federal government emergency powers to do everything “necessary for the security,
defence, peace, order, and welfare for Canada”
• Allowed the government to suspend civil rights and assume all powers
Canadian Expeditionary Force • Created in 1914
• A tactic used in order to attract people to fight overseas
• The force contained 25,000 men, who helped participate in the battle of Ypres
• Eventually this force broke out and helped to win the first World War
• Eventually led to conscription because many men were losing their lives and more men were
needed to support and fight overseas. Discouraged men when they started realizing that the war
was not a joke
Conscription Crisis, 1917
• Conscription: mandatory participation in the war effort for boys over the age of 16. Needed to
participate in order to show loyalty to country.
• As WWI broke out, many men volunteered to join the army, but numbers dropped as soldiers died
and people became discouraged to join.
• Divided rural and urban Canadians.
-Rural Canadians tended to be stronger opponents of conscription. Argued that they needed their
sons to raise crops in order to feed the soldiers overseas. Making food was just as important as
waging war. Tensions because these farmers were not doing enough to support the war.
• Propaganda used to pressure people to vote
• Wartime Elections Act (1917) granted women the right to vote in federal elections for the first
time, but did not involve all women. The women who could vote needed to be related to men who
had fought overseas – basically only women who supported conscription. Also stripped the votes
from “enemy aliens”
Winnipeg General Strike 1919
• Trying to negotiate for better wages with employers (between building and metal trades workers)
• Winnipeg Trades and Labour Council agreed to hold a strike vote among all of its members:
11,112 yes and 524 no
• Strike began on May 15 1919 and everything stopped in Winnipeg. Even non-unionized workers
joined the strike voluntarily
• Discontent with Canadian society because of the results of the war and democracy
• Citizens’ Committee of 1000 – organized with 100 members trying to figure out how to break up
the strike and put Winnipeg workers back to work
• Strikers demanded: collective bargaining rights, increased living wage (especially those who
suffered from war effects that made life unaffordable), and reinstatement of all strikers
• June 16-17 strike leaders arrested
• June 21: Bloody Saturday
• Caused massive unemployment and inflation because goods and services were not being
manufactured, forcing prices to increase
• Bankruptcy occurred because many could not afford the basic necessities of life because the prices
were too high
• This was seen as the first movement that was influenced by communism
• Farmers feel the pressure of the decline in world food prices
• Labour shortages—needing to pay higher prices for their ordinary consumer goods, including the
wheat that they are producing
• Bad economic conditions and decline in wheat production because of tariffs and freight rates
(farmers grow and sell the wheat, but they need to sell it to the markets, which has a high cost of
• Farmers created a platform at the end of the first war and they wanted:
-New National Policy
-Nationalization -End sale of natural resources
-Returned soldiers’ pensions
• A form of unemployment relief during the Great Depression (1930s). Did not have enough money
to pay for all unemployed people, so the Federal government needed to cut its budgets to an all
time low. This was one of the three principles of relief that were common at the time, along with
less eligibility (giving an unemployed person lower rates than if they had a job- preventing people
from being lazy and not finding another job) and deserving poor (having to prove that they
deserved the money- actually seeking work and willing to work)
• Residualism was relief from the State – a last resort option. It involved first turning to your
personal savings, then family, then the church (or other private associations). If you cannot seek
relief there, you may go to the State.
• A lot of pressure in order to get money, so many men just avoided this and lived in the “jungles”
Relief Camp Workers’ Union
• Designed to address what federal politicians saw as a crisis
• Single men were the first to be let off from work and the first to be removed from relief – forcing
them to live in the “jungles” or on the streets
• 1932: Federal government opens a series of relief work camps that paid men to work here for 20
cents per day. The intention was to quarantine young men from communist influences in the cities
• Problematic system because many felt as though the government was not addressing the concerns
of the people
• Led to strikes in 1935 because of the living conditions and poor wages. Led to the Regina Riot on
July 1 1935 where a mass violent outbreak occurred, forcing the closure of the camps in June
10 September 1939
• Canada declares war on Germany – because Germany attacked Poland 9 days before, which
forced the British and French troops to demand that German troops be brought out of this region.
British and French declare war on Germany Sep 3
• Alongside Britain, Canada wanted the German forces out of Poland and they wanted an end to the
• Under the support of Britain and France, the Canadian army joined forces to create a united force
in order to rid the region of German or communist troops
Ogdensburg Agreement 1940
• An agreement signed by Prime Minister Mackenzie King and President Franklin Roosevelt. The
agreement outlined a permanent plan for mutual defense overseas between the US and Canada.
• The purpose was to provide a framework for closer continental defense cooperation in the face of
World War II between Canada and the US
• The agreement called for the establishment of a joint American-Canadian board to coordinate the
defence of North America. The meetings at Ogdensburg also led to negotiations between the
British and American government that would be extremely helpful to the Allied war effort.
1942 Conscription Plebiscite
• The Conservative Party pressured Mackenzie King to introduce compulsory overseas military
conscription. On April 27 1942, a plebiscite was held for this issue. It was supported by most
English Canadians, and was rejected by French Canadians, especially Quebec, where anti-
conscription groups emerged. • A political and military crisis about forced military service in Canada during World War II. Not as
politically damaging as the Conscription crisis of 1917.
Marsh Report (1942)
• Leonard Marsh
• 1942: Report on Social Security for Canada (Marsh Report) outlined how the government could
help to benefit Canadians. It was a social minimum that the State provided so that nobody would
slip below into poverty—a form of protection. This included:
1. Employment risk coverage: the risk of losing the ability to sustain oneself because of
unemployment, sickness, injury, or pregnancy.
2. Universal risk coverage: Including old age (greatest cause of poverty in the 1940s because
people become less physically capable of working as they age) or disability (permanent disability
or one that you are born with that prevents you from working).
Family Allowance Act (1944)
• Allowed families to provide adequate food and shelter for their children to promote equal
• Mostly because during this time there were high rates of infant mortality, so the needs of children
were most important.
• The Act provided cash payments for up to 4 children up to the age of 16 as long as they were in
• This was Canada’s first universal welfare program. It did not immediately encroach on a
provincial responsibility. The Federal Government was in the clear to pass this law. All of the
other things would require cooperation by the provinces or a major constitutional amendment
Canada/Quebec Pension Plans (1965)
• The Quebec Pension Plan allowed the government to take withdrawals from workers paychecks,
and use them for investments- and then back into funds.
• The Canada Pension Plan was similar to that of Quebec. They had given up the idea of pay-as-
• The two separate pension plans created an inoperable conflict. For example, what happens to the
pension plan if you move? Moving from Quebec to Vancouver would mean that all contributions
to the Quebec plan would be moved to the Canada plan.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
• Canada’s first peacetime military alliance established in 1949. Allowed for defence and security
between North America and Europe
• Main purpose was to defend each other from the Soviet Union taking control of their nation.
During the Cold War, NATO provided a frontline deterrence against the Soviet Union and its
• The Warsaw Pact was formed in 1955, as a sort of response to NATO. It was between the Soviet
Union and several Eastern European countries, with Soviet dominance being emphasized.
Canada-US Auto Pact 1965
• A conditional free-trade agreement signed by Canada and the US in January 1965 to create a
single North American market for automobiles. Signed by Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and
President Lyndon B. Johnson.
• Removed tariffs on cars, trucks, buses, tires, and automotive parts in order to benefit car
manufacturers. General Motors, Ford, Chrysler and Volvo agreed that automobile production
would not fall below 1964 levels and would ensure the same production-sales ratio in Canada.
• Issues leading to the Auto Pact: By the early 1960’s the automotive industry started facing
difficulties again. US-owned Canadian Big Three (GM, Ford and Chrysler) began importing an
increasing amount of cars and parts from the US that were not made in Canada. In response,
Canada could not keep up with their consumers’ demands for the latest models, nor could they keep up with the technological developments. Forced to rethink the automotive trade and
production relationship between the two countries.
Maîtres chez nous
• Means: masters of our own home
• Related to the Quiet Revolution in Quebec (rapid change in Quebec during the 1960s
• After Quebec had voted to make their electricity company a crown corporation (company owned
and run by the government) Hydro-Quebec. Big success, increased Quebec pride
• The “maîtres chez nous” philosophy permeated the government and had influence on the
• The Lesage government demanded a review of the federal policy and won a major victory
following a story First Ministers’ conference in 1964
• After initially approaching the federal government for additional funds to meet its needs, Lesage
withdrew Quebec from several cost-sharing programs, such as pensions, healthcare, and tax-
sharing – in exchange for fiscal compensation
• The issue of special status arose when Québec became the only province to opt out of some 30
joint programs that the other provinces stayed with. It was perhaps to calm the anxieties of English
Canada and to show his good will that in 1964 Lesage agreed to a proposal for patriating and
amending the Canadian constitution by a method known as the Fulton-Favreau formula.
• This would have allowed the Parliament of Canada to repeal or amend any provision of the
Constitution, subject to a veto by any given province on certain major issues, but to a two-thirds
majority on others. However, because of the extreme reactions of various nationalist groups within
the province, Lesage withdre