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HIST 3791 (2)

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York University
HIST 3791
Thabit Abdullah

Shah Abbas IShah of the Safavid Empire in the late 16th century Shah Abbas reigned over a quite successuful time in Safavid history developing a standing army instead of the tribal Kizilbash The kizilbash were causing havoc with disloyalty to the shah and factionalism and so he reformed that by creating a new army of ghulams slaves from Armenia Georgia and CircassiaShah Abas moved the Safavid capitol to Isfahan and during his time Persian art thrived such as paintings and persian rugs the Safavids were not a conqeust empire rather they just wanted to maintain what they could and Shah Abbas army was only there to defend from the Ottoman and Uzbek threat Brought in the Shirley Brothers to help with gunpowder technology to further the Safavid armyNizami Cedid A series of reforms to modernize the Ottoman Empire to bring them up to par of their Western rivals undertaken by Sultan Selim III The reforms included new regualtions on taxation and provincial governship but most importantly of the military the Nizami Cedid became to be known as the new army of the empire or the New Order The Ottomans needed reforms as they were behind military wise with the European powers defeating them in 2 TurcoRussian wars losing the Crimea region and later losing Egyptian and Syrain territory to Napolean The reforms were aided by bringing French officers to teach the army and help with tactics Naval reforms were also made to strengthen the Ottomans naval wise Selim III attempted not to upset the balance of the existing troops such as the janissaries but they revolted agaisnt these reforms and he was eventually deposedSelim III same info as above was deposed and a struggle between his son Mahmud II and Mustafa IV commenced regarding sultanship and his cousin Mustafa IV evenutally succeeded him with help from the janissaries reforms most important thing in his time and he opened up ottoman embassies in European capitalsSultanate of Women A period in the 16th and 17th cenutry in Ottoman empire hisotry where women were powerful influences to the empire The Sultanate of women begins with Sultan Suleiman and Hurrem Sultan his captive Russian wife The Ottoman Harem was a bonafide institutuion within the empire and the women running it would be the Valide Sultan mother of the Sultan and the Haseki Sultan the sultans favorite the Haseki Sultan had most access to the Sultan himself and was thus very influential such as Hurrem who infleunced the sultan so much that she was freed from her concubine postion and made the legal wife of the sultan and her son Selim II inherited the empire Other notable women of the harem were Nurbanu Selim IIs wife KosemAhmet Is wife and strongest Valide Sultan of Murad IV where she ruled on his young behalf and Turhan Mehmet IV who was also the grandson of Kosem so there was a power struggle between the two The fratrenizing of Sultans became abolished in the Harem period and the Kafes began The Ottoman empire was undergoing a change with the declining power of the once absolutist Sultan women having infleunce and then leading to the Sultanate of Viziers and the Koprulu period Tulip Period era in the early 18th century Ottoman History that was relativley peaceful till its end by the Patrona Halil Revolt during this time the Ottomans came nearer to conquering russian than any other point in history with the help of grand vizier Nevsehirli Ibrahim Pasha it was during the time of Sultan Ahmet III where art and literature flourished it was during this time the printing press was introduced to the empire also However Ahmed III was also known for extravagance and the tulip period ended by a revolt led by Patrona Halil in 1730 with the aid of janissaries and citizens to get rid of the Sultan named after the increased cultivation of the flower at that time in constantinople Koprulu The Koprulu were a significant family of Albanian origin that were grand viziers in the Ottoman Empire The Koprulu era commenced after the Sultanate of Women where politics were now infleucned and controlled by the grand viziersthe Koprulu grand viziers led successed and reforms within the ottoman empire The koprulu vizeirs were highly infleintial even those that married into them were such as Kara Mustafa Pasha who led the unsuccessful battle of vienna and was exectued for it led to the treaty of Karlowitz and stagnation decline of the ottoman empire on the defensive now no more expansionNadir Shah Nadir Shah started as a Kizilbash general for the Safavid empire who helped them defeatAfghani Hotaki threat who had overthrown Shah Sultan Husayn at the time of turmoil the russians and ottomans took advantage to take over territroires in iran so Shah Tahmahsap II made Nader the chief of his army and was sucessful in regaining territory But nader shah grew in power over the Shah and their relation became tense Shah tahmaspah was removed from the throne and his baby son Abbas was put on it with nader ruling on his behalf finally he held a a grand meeting and became the official shah of iran in the early 18th century nader shah also led the defeat of the mughal empire plnudering its cities and took all the treasures of the empire nader shah ended the 200 year long safavid empire and helped the eventual defeat of the mughal empire and weakened it enough for british invasion Awrangzib mughal emperorthat ruled for 50 years in the 17th last of the real mughal rulers Awran dethroned his father Shah Jahan and prisoned him for ten years not succedding him naturally Awran struggled with his brothers to be emperor namely Dara Shikoh and defeadted and killed them to rise to power He began as a successufl ruler of a mixed hindumuslim empire but then reinstated the jizya on nonmulsims and had to deal with rajput revolts weakening his case within the population of the empire Weakened from the Maratha and sikh threats the Mughal empire never really rose again after Awramgzibs time to be finally defetead in the mid18th cenutry
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