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# ITEC 1000 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Memory Address, Instruction Register, Counter Machine

Department
Information Technology
Course Code
ITEC 1000
Professor
Paul Kashiyama
Study Guide
Quiz

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This webpage has designed and created to represent the solutions of course assignment-2
of ITEC 1000: Introduction to Information Technologies. Little Man Computer model is
originally developed by Dr. Stuart Madnick in 1963. The model demonstrates how
different components of a computer works to complete an instruction. This assignment is
prepared to solve total seven problems. Each problem is related with Little Man Computer
Model as well as recent development of computer technology. Over the last 50 years
computer technology is changed in-terms of capacity and speed but the basic model
remains almost same.
Question 1: What criteria define Von Neumann architecture? Identify
clearly and coherently.
Solution
John von Neumann the famous computer scientist joined as a consultant of ENIC or
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer project at the University of Pennsylvania in
1945. With a very limited capacity on that period, ENIC had very limited memory in 20
locations each could contain a 10-digit decimal number. Another one hundred numbers
could be store on read only memory. Programs were stored externally with heard wired
device called “Patch Panel”. It needed many hours to change the program and Patch
Panel had to rewiring Von proposed an improvement of the ENIC architecture. The most
important change in the ENIC design was
i. The concept of storage area where both program and data can be a stored
internally. It solved the problem retrieve program using patch panel of ENIC
machine and saved hundreds of hours of rewiring the Patch Panel.
ii. ENIC machine was based on 10-digit decimal number. Von Neumann architecture
proposed a binary system to process data. This concept allows the similarity of
ON/OFF switches and Boolean logic.
The Little Man Computer is an example of using Von Neumann architecture as a model of
computer design. Little Man Computer Introduces the concept of memory, data store
location and data operation. In deed invention of Von Neumann Architecture in 1945 is still
the basic rule of modern computer technology. By this time capacity of storage, memory
and processing speed became faster and faster but design remain almost same. Thus, Von
Neumann is considered as the icon of computer revolution.
Criteria that defines Von Neumann architecture is as follows:
1. Memory holds both programs and data known as Stored Program Concept which
allows programs to be changed easily.
2. There is a single sequential numeric address for each and every memory location
and so Memory is addressed linearly.
3. Memory is addressed by the location number without regard to the data
contained within - Memory is always addressed by its sequential numeric address
despite what data it contains.

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Question 2: The following Little Man program is supposed to add two
number inputs, subtract a third input number from the sum, and out put
the result.
(a) What is wrong with this program?
A program is written in wrong format compare to what a user wants to perform. These
current instructions are instructing Little Man to subtract addition of IN1 and IN2 from IN3
whereas user wants Little Man to subtract IN3 from addition of IN1 and IN2.
(b) Repair the program so that it produces the correct results.
OUT = IN1 + IN2 - IN3
mailbox mnemonic code Numeric code
00 IN 901
01 STO 99 399
02 IN 901
04 STO 99 399
05 IN 901
06 SUB 299
07 OUT 902
08 COB 000
Solution
OUT = IN1 + IN2 - IN3
mailbox mnemonic code Numeric code
00 IN 901
01 STO 99 399
02 IN 901
04 STO 99 399
05 IN 901
06 STO98 398
07 LDA99 599
08 SUB 98 298
09 OUT 902
10 COB 000