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ITEC 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Analytical Engine, Briey, Gif

Information Technology
Course Code
ITEC 1000
Peter A Khaiter
Study Guide

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ITEC 1000 A Test 1
October 21, 2009
Instructions: Do all problems. No notes, crib sheets or books are allowed. A calculator
is allowed. Present your solutions in the accompanying booklet in the order that they
appear on this paper
1. (10 points) Give short answers of 2 or 3 sentences describing the person and his
contributions together with approximate dates or the invention - its significance
and approximate dates.
(a) the Analytic and the Difference Engines of Charles Babage
In 1822 Charles Babbage and English mathematician proposed a steam driven
calculating machine the size of a room to compute tables of numbers such as
logarithms and trigonometric functions in order to improve tne numberic
tables used in navigation. The project was sponsored by the British govern-
ment but after 10 years the project was cancelled. The Difference engine was
followed by Babbage’s Analytic Engine - both were never completed - until
only years ago when the Differene engine was built according to Babbage’s
specifications as an historical monument The Analytic engine was to have
been large as a house and powered by 6 steam engines, would be more gen-
eral purpose in nature because it would be programmable with a punched
card technology. It featured a conditional statement, allowing a program to
obtain different results each time it was run
(b) the Hollerith desk
The Hollerith desk was invented by Herman Hollerith to help in the tabulat-
ing of data for the U.S. 1890 census. It was a card reader that through gear
mechanism could count and display results on dials.
(c) John von Neuman
von Neuman lived from1903-1957 was a famous American/Hungarian math-
ematician who was also one of the first to conceive of a stored program com-
puter. Tthe fundamental architecture of modern day computers bears his
name - the von Neuman architecture - - after a paper he wrote in 1945 out-
lining the ideas in relation to his work with others on the ENIAC computer.
(d) the ENIAC computer
ENIAC was built at the University of Pennsylvania between 1943 and 1945
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