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KINE 1000 Study Guide - Final Guide: Canadian Multiculturalism Act, Compulsory Heterosexuality, Hegemonic Masculinity

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 1000
Hernan Humana
Study Guide

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Notes 2nd Semester
Sex and Gender 11/01/2016
The way the egg and sperm are represented in science reflect the social stereotypes of men and
Language matters how we refer to things
Society sees sperm as fast, strong, powerful, brave, leader…
Society sees the egg as passive, fragile, complete once sperm enters it…
Traditionally, fertilization is seen as sperm competing to reach the egg while the egg waits
Woody Allen’s movie – “everything you wanted to know about sex but were afraid to ask” –
show sperm is ‘scared’
Women’s egg production is represented as wasteful while men’s sperm production is not
Reality is that egg traps the sperm so that it is forced to lie flat against the zona
o Women shown as more aggressive hard to accept
Why is there competition between genders in reproduction instead of cooperation?
More women enter biology will that change the male bias?
o Emily Martin thinks no
Sex and Gender 13/01/2016
Sports are sites of socialisation experiences than specific socialization outcomes
Social relations + cultural context = meaning and importance
o Meaning and importance of experiences are based on the context in which the
interactions take place
People who do not play sports, have different socialisation opportunities (art, music, poetry…etc.)
Gender differences are analysed in 3 ways:
o Gender performance:
How social agents ‘do gender’
Girls dancing around Barbie
Boys disrupting the girls’ dancing
o Gender structure:
How institutions affect the difference in behaviour of genders
The amount of times that girls and boys do things differently from each other is
much more than the amount of times they do things similarly
This is hegemony at play
E.g. many more men are team coaches than women are and many more women
are team manager than men are
Men and women’s choices are reflected on past experiences
Sports like soccer even have separate boys and girl’s teams
o Gender culture:
The impact of cultural symbols (such as Barbie) on gender behaviours
Gender differences are part of our culture
E.g. Barbie shows hegemonic ideas about gender differences
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Therefore, without examining the situation without the above levels of analysis, the situation
cannot fully be understood.
Sexuality and Heteronormativity in Sport (guest lecturer Patrick Keleher) - 18/01/2016
Most people use steroid to look better
His research based on the use of steroid by gay men to look like straight men
Everyone has the right to enjoy their body through physical activity
o One of the ideas of kinesiology
Sexuality can be a barrier to physical activity
Many homosexual people are discriminated in sports
Sport reproduces
o Homophobia
o Heteronormativity
o Hegemonic masculinity
Sport is regulated around sexuality
o A mechanism that allows us to socialise what appropriate sexuality should be
o ‘Correct’ sexuality is learnt
o Hence sexual minorities are discriminated
Athletes of sport rend to enforce masculinity and heteronormativity
Sexuality: encompasses attraction, acts, practices, behaviours, values, roles, identities in relation
to our sexual/erotic lives
o It is bio-psycho-social
Relates to pleasure, fantasy, and desire as much biological aspect
Causes of sexuality has 2 theories
o Essentialist: sexuality is natural, fixed, and innate nature we are born with it
o Constructionist: social, cultural, and political factors produce sexuality nurture
No scientific evidence to support what causes sexuality but sexuality is socially constructed
Reason people have sex:
o Duty, pleasure, prostitution, reproduction…
If having sex is natural, then why are all sexualities not considered normal?
o Regulated by power
Foucault says:
o Sexuality is a production of social discourse
o Talking about sexuality produces truths about sexuality
Truths are based on knowledge as a result of norms
Truth is mobilised by those in power
This ‘truth’ that people see is considered right – some are seen better than others
Disguises the social construction of sexuality
o Sexuality are organised in hierarchies based on how closely you approach the norm
easier to get by if you are more socially ‘normal’
o We tend to make sure we behave in a ‘normal’ manner – we monitor other people too
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Sexuality is thought of in a linear model:
o Biological body (sex) determines gender
o Gender determines masculinity/femininity and hormones (testosterone/estrogen)
o Gender leads to heterosexuality idea that men and women should be attracted to each
other because it leads to reproduction considered most logical answer
o Hence, sexuality is a product of gender
o This model is known as:
Heterosexual Matrix (Judith Butler)
Compulsory Heterosexuality (Adrienne Rich)
o Problem with this model: men can be feminine and women can be masculine and
male/female are not the only biological genders
Some people are intersex (people who do note fall into a category of male and
female gender is ambiguous b/c of hormones/physical body…etc.)
Causes sexual discrimination and homophobia
Butler’s theory:
o Sex, gender, and sexuality are linked by normative ideas
o These normative ideas are then considered natural
o “Compulsory heterosexuality” produces normative ideas
Intelligible vs. unintelligible some sexualities are ok while others are not
o Those who diverge from gender norms question its logic and ‘trouble’ its stability
Homophobia: Discrimination/fear against sexual minorities
Heterosexism: favouring heterosexuals over other sexualities
Heteronormativity: the idea that heterosexuality is the only sexuality that is
privileged/compulsory/universal. This includes institutions that support these ideas
o E.g. religion, media…etc.…especially sports
Sexual minorities have stereotypes like deviant, abnormal, sick, promiscuous, feminine/man-like
o The consequences of such beliefs is the sexual minorities suffer from discrimination,
prosecution, less opportunity in sports…etc.
Sexuality is everywhere we see connections everywhere once we start thinking about it
Sexuality intersects with sex, gender, race, ethnicity, class, ability, age, religion, place. They are
all interrelated.
Studying heterosexuality is as beneficial as studying homosexuality
How does heterosexuality shape our social experiences and institutions?
How is heteronormativity promoted and maintained?
o Is there a single type of heterosexuality? What about polygamy
o How do people ‘perform’ homonormativity?
E.g. gay marriage
Sexuality has dichotomous thinking either heterosexual or homosexual
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