[KINE 1020] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (62 pages long)

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KINE 1020
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1, Fibre Types Review, January 6th
The myosin heads themselves have different twitch speeds.
Type 1 is slow, and doesn’t twitch fast
Type 2a twitches faster, but is still somewhat fatigue resistant
Type 2x has the fastest twitch, but gets fatigued easily
Type 2b is not found in humans, but is found in rats and it has the same function as type 2x
fibres
Fibre Heads
All fibre types have mitochondria and glycolysis. The difference between them comes in the
blend, or how much of each they do.
Type 1 has lots of mitochondria and doesn’t do much glycolysis which is why it doesn’t twitch
quickly.
glycolysis on the other hand produces ATP very quickly, which is why type 2x can produce so
much power, but it can’t maintain that rate of ATP production for a long time, which is why
type 2x fatigue quickly.
Difference between fibres
The key difference between the fibres is the size of them. The slow twitch that last for a long
time are the smallest fibres, and the fast twitch that produce lots of power for a short time are
large in diameter.
You can’t change a type 1 fibre to a type 2 fibre. You can however go from a type 2a to a type
2x or vice versa. You can also change the size of the muscle fibre by doing certain types of
training.
Genetic predetermination of fibre types
The muscle fibres that you are born with are the ones you are stuck with.
You can train either long distance running or sprinting and get better at either, but how much
better you can get is ultimately decided by the fibre types you are born with, which is decided
by your g genetic code
Graphs assessment
The Latency Period is the time where you send a signal to a muscle and the action potential
takes time to reach the muscle. This is the time where the muscle doesn't actually move yet. It
takes around 5 milliseconds after the action potential for the first increase in force. This time is
spent on calcium release and calcium binding to troponin and the rolling back of tropomyosin
The Contraction Period comes afterwards and builds up gradually, it doesn’t just go straight
up, because it takes time to recruit more actin myosin bridges, until you reach peak muscle
force.
You have a Relaxation Period at the end. It doesn’t just drop though, because it takes time to
take up all of the calcium back into the sarcomere. The enzyme that does this is calcium
ATPase, and Serca
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If you send another action potential before the fibres relax, the relaxation period doesn't happen
and the contraction period gets more steep, meaning that you are recruiting more fibres faster,
so you’re generating more power faster
A slow twitch fibre has a longer contraction period that a fast twitch fibre
this means that it also has a longer relaxation period that a fast twitch fibre
Relaxation of muscles almost always takes longer than contraction of those fibres
Muscle movement
Muscles don’t move as soon as you produce force, it takes time. There is somewhat of a
delay. This is because the muscle fibre itself has mass, so for the Z lines to start moving in
you are pulling a whole fibre. This initial force that is generated might not be strong enough to
pull the whole fibre with all of its weight.
You can’t make any given fibre contract harder, if you have a heavier load the only thing that
you can do is recruit more fibres to generate more power.
With a heavy load, the distance travelled of the fibre is shorter, the contraction time is shorter,
and the latent period or the delay is longer.
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