KINE 1020 Study Guide - Final Guide: Pulmonary Function Testing, External Intercostal Muscles, Respiratory Tract

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Published on 14 Jun 2019
KINE 1020
Respiratory Disease (January 7)
respiratory system allows you to breath in and out
o begins with nose/mouth, connected to pharynx and trachea (windpipe)
o epiglottis controls air going into lungs and food into stomach (like train track)
o trachea branches into lungs, which branches into alveoli
conductive zone (no gas exchange)
o mouth/nose trachea larynx bronchi bronchioles humidifies, warms
and filters air
o first part of the tract: warms and moistens air (sinus and trachea)
if this didn’t happen, outside air would go directly into alveoli would
cause a lot of damage
filters air
cilia and mucus grab particulates in the air (you don’t want dust particles
in your alveoli impair diffusion of oxygen)
push up the particulates until epiglottis, and into yours mouth so
you swallow it
respiratory zone (gas exchange)
o bronchioles alveoli
thin membranes thinness allows diffusion to occur
diffusion @ alveoli
get C02 generated from metabolism back out
upload the oxygen from the outside air in
dead air space and gas exchange
o beginning part of the tract (sinus, mouth, trachea, bronchi)- spaces air goes past
but no diffusion of o2
part of air breathe in, doesn’t partake in o2 diffusion
o air comes in and there’s no diffusion of oxygen and goes out
o inhale o2 from air
21% o2
o residual volume- air left in lungs that you can never fully exhale
e.g. if you take a breath of 500mL only 300mL is used for gas exchange
composition of air
o inhaled- 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 0.97% other
o exhaled- 17% oxygen, 3.3% CO2, 1.97% other, 78% nitrogen
o dead space is why artificial respiration works
inspiration vs. exhalation use muscles
o inspiration
external intercostal
o exhalation
passive- no muscle
forced- internal intercostal or natural elasticity
lung function test
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KINE 1020
o spirometry test measure lung volume
o total lung capacity- breathe in all you can
taller/bigger- larger lungs
o vital capacity- what you can maximally breath in and out (air left in your lungs-
residual volume)
o tidal volume- smaller breaths (normal)
o measure frequency
common lung diseases impair getting oxygen to tissues and CO2 out
o pulmonary circulation diseases (blood vessel that supply respiratory system)
clotting], scarring or inflammation of blood vessels
lipids get into lumen (under lining of cells) creates plaque
body tries to protect, forms fibrous cap, and cap gets cracked from blood
flow, form a thrombosis blocking area or travel downstream, becomes
clots happen in deep veins in legs (stillness causes clots to form) deep
vein thrombosis
thrombosis- blocks (natives, consonant), embolism- leaves (immigrants,
path of blood flow
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KINE 1020
blood goes from the veins to the lungs and then heart
o when blood clots get stuck in capillary, it dies
o larger are= multiple alveoli
pulmonary vasculature acts as a sieve/filter for clots protecting
the heart
e.g. pulmonary embolism
can’t breathe, chest pain, fainting, dizziness, sweating, anxiety,
can be fatal
CT scan shows high density areas (white), lungs supposed to be
treatment: anti-clots, oxygen, surgery
o restrictive lung tissue diseases (restrict lung tissues to expand)
affect structure of lung or tissues of the lungs someone sitting on you,
can’t take a deep breath
reduced lung stretchiness (stiff lung)
increased work of breathing
increased O2 demand to supple external intercostal muscles to
pull ribcage apart
reduced tidal volumes (shallow breaths)
increased expiratory flow rates and respiratory rate
some alveoli units may be fine; some may be disturbed (non-
uniform distribution of ventilation)
poor gas exchange
mechanical and gas exchanged are both a problem
e.g. scoliosis
lateral curve of spine (deformed chest wall, limited chest
movement, reduced lung volumes)
e.g. pulmonary fibrosis
caused by infections, environmental agents like asbestos and silica
and chronic inflammation
TLC, VC, RV, TV is reduced
ventilation increased by increased respiratory rate as opposed to
higher O2 requirement
Respiratory Diseases CONT (January 9)
o airway diseases
narrowing of blockage of the airways like breathing through a straw
e.g. asthma- autoimmune
normal airways at rest
at attack, bronchioles/airways constrict, shrinking of exits/holes,
hard for air to get in and out of lung
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