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Final

KINE 3000 Study Guide - Final Guide: Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Effect Size


Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 3000
Professor
Joseph Baker
Study Guide
Final

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1. Exercise and psychological health
- Why is exercise healthy?
oPhysiological benefits
Improved: endorphins, agility, bone density, strength and flexibility
oPsychosocial benefits
Feel less stressed, better work performance, positive self-concept
oImmediate and longterm effects
- How much activity is necessary?
oBasic requirements
30+ minutes of moderate intensity, most days of the week
oHealth benefits come with increased effort
Come from higher intensity or duration
oWHO guidelines
30 minutes is only good to reduce risk of disease
For maintenance of healthy body weight, need 1 hour of moderate intensity
activity on most days; need to balance high caloric diets
oPhysical activity guide
Recommends adults get 30-60 minutes of activity most days
Mix of endurance, flexibility and strength activities
Do smaller things instead of one activity
- State of active living in Canada
oOnly 37% of Canadians participate in regular activity (30 minutes, most days)
o63% is classified as sedentary
oMales vs females
Females are consistently more inactive
Inactivity increases (for both genders) with age
These amounts may actually be worse because some people lie about their
level of activity, to make them sound better
oChildren
Inactivity is increasing at younger ages
Only 5% do 60 minutes daily
- Are people aware of the benefits of physical activity?
oMost people have the awareness, no difference between active/inactive people
regarding knowledge they have
oInactive people find more excuses/barriers
Convenience, environmental, physical limitations, lack of time, boredom
- Importance of psychology of physical activity
oChallenge to get large portion of population to become active
oNeed to modify exercise behaviour, public opinion, motivate people and change
attitudes

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oPsychology is devoted to understanding human behaviour and what makes some
people exercise and not others
- Defining psychology of activity
oLook at ABC's of exercise
Attitudes, behaviours, cognitions
oSocial factors that influence those things
oMental health benefits and consequences
- Interpreting research
oHave to figure out which results are the best
oNarrative review: say basic conclusions (which support, which refute)
oMeta-analysis: say overall outcome from many studies, relationship
Get effect size to conclude about impact of treatment
0.0-.30 = small, .31-.70 = medium, .71-1.0 = large
Positive or negative direction
oModerator variables
Affects the direction and strength of the relationship
Might not know true effect of treatment
- Epidemiological studies
oStudy that follows cohorts over time
oExamine relationship between how much people exercise and their mental health
oAdvantage is that you get better understanding
oDisadvantage is that it is hard to control for confounding variables
- Effects of exercise
oAcute: physiological effects, like increased blood flow, O2
oChronic: metabolic changes to muscle structure and function
- Mood
oState of mind or feeling, general positive or negative affect
oMeasures of mood and activity
Profile of mood states (POMS)
Rate items on a scale, to see your level of certain moods
Exercise shows increase in positive moods and decrease in negative moods
- Exercise-induced feelings inventory
oRate 12 adjectives on 5 point scale
How much you feel those things at that point in time
oDesigned to assess psychological effects of exercise in 4 categories
Revitalization, tranquility, positive engagement, physical exhaustion
oAppealing test because it is less time consuming
- Experimental study
oSee the effect of a mirror in exercise setting, among female university students
oFelt much less revitalized and a little less tranquil
oMirror had negative effects
- Overall effects of exercise on mood

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oMeta-analysis shows medium effect size
oGenerally more positive mood and less negative
- Cognitive explanations
oExpectancy hypothesis
Individuals expect to feel better, so they do
Might have opposite effect if you are forced into doing something you don't
want
Expect not to enjoy it
oDistraction hypothesis
Exercise is a time away from stressful life
oSense of mastery/achievement hypothesis
Humans are motivated by a sense of accomplishment, which makes us feel
better
Might be important in the adoption phase of exercise
Not as accomplishing if you're a regular exerciser
- Physiological explanations
oThermogenic hypothesis
Increase in body temperature leads to reduced muscle tension, relaxation,
better mood and less anxiety
oEndorphins 'exercise high'
Increased release of endorphins may result in positive mood effects
Human trials are inconclusive
oSerotonin hypothesis
Neurotransmitter that affects mood, emotion and sleep
Exercise increases the amount available
Reduces SSRI activity
Not researched as much
oOpponent process hypothesis
Brain opposes either pleasurable or aversive processes to get back to
homeostasis
Since exercise is usually unpleasant, pleasant processes are initiated to get
balance
- Negative effects of exercise on psychological well-being
oOvertraining, staleness/boredom, heightened body image issues, negative during
exercise
oPositive effects outweigh negatives
- Exercise dependence
oExercise addiction
The need to exercise is so strong that it controls the individual's life;
compulsive
Primary: exercise to achieve something positive (euphoria) or avoid
something negative (withdrawal)
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